(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Commercial oils, vegetable and animal, with special reference to oriental oils"

MEMCAL tSClHKDOL 
LUIBMAl^T 




..._,-^^:...ege of Pharmacy 






CALIFORNIA COLLEGt 
of PHARMACY 



COMMERCIAL OILS 

VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 

WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO 

ORIENTAL OILS 



BY 



I. F. LAUCKS, BS., M.S. 

Member American Chemical Society, American Institute of Mining Engineers 



Ca.!!fcrn!a College of Pharmacy 



FIRST EDITION 



NEW YORK 

JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc. 

London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited 
1919 

1? 



Copyright, 19 19, by 
I. F. LAUCKS 



PRESS OF 

BRAUNWORTH <i CO. 

BOOK MANUFACTURERS 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



CALIFORNIA C0LLE6E 

of PHARMACY 



TO 

l^vfxitssov (ClrarUs Jff. jMaberg 

EST GR.\TEFUL ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
OF EARLY TRAINING 



3998 



PREFACE 



Tms book is intended primarily for the non-technical 
man in the oil trade. The writer has attempted to 
give in it the technical data and information required in 
every-day deahngs in the oil trade, without mixing in a 
great mass of more or less purely scientific matter. 

Trade rules and specifications have been given where- 
ever such exist. The characteristics of the various 
oils (or constants as they are sometimes less properly 
called) which are given, are the maximum and minimum 
values within which most of the samples of oil that will 
be met with in practice will lie. In general, values which 
represent what might be termed " freaks " have been 
omitted. The idea has been to show what values can 
reasonably be expected, rather than to show the widest 
variations that can exist. In preparing these maximum 
and minimum values, determinations of many chemists 
have been compared, as published in standard text 
such as Lewkowitsch and Allen, in the technical 
press, and other sources. 

The data on Oriental oils, which are now being im- 
ported at Pacific Coast ports, are for the most part 
results of work in the author's laboratory. Characteris- 
tics of these oils have been given separately from the 
above-mentioned average characteristics. This has been 
done because it has been found in many cases that a 



Vi PREFACE 

so-called Oriental oil will differ from the same oil from 
other parts of the world, to which the oil trade has been 
more accustomed in times past. In some cases this is 
due to difference resulting from climate, soil, and other 
natural conditions. In other cases it is due to the hand- 
ling the oil receives, sometimes the result of careless- 
ness, and sometimes due to unavoidable commercial 
conditions. 

The result in some cases is an oil different in some 
respects from the oil that commerce is used to. Objec- 
tion is often made by buyers to such differences. But 
these Oriental oils have filled a great need in a crisis 
in the United States, and have won a place for them- 
selves, and as such must be accepted by the oil trade. 
Buyers must not attempt to make Oriental oils conform 
to the standards of oil from other countries, but should 
rather draw new standards for these oils, which will 
fit their special characteristics. 

There is a constant demand for closer grading of 
these oils. This demand will gradually be met as 
methods for obtaining and shipping these oils improve. 
In a commercial movement as new as this is, too much 
must not be expected at the start. The grading is 
now probably as close as can be under present methods 
of handhng. Cooperation between buyer and seller 
will be the best means of improving conditions, and of 
holding this new trade for the United States in years 
to come. 

I. F. Laucks. 
Seattle, Sept., 1918. 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER I 



Definition — General Properties — Rancidity and Free Fatty Acids 
— Oil Cake — Refining— Physical and Chemical Properties and 
Reactions of Oils — Moisture or Water — Insoluble Sediment, 
Dirt, Foreign Substance — Specific Gravity — Melting-, 
Solidifying-, and Freezing-points — Refractive Index — Color — 
Viscosity — Saponification Value or Number (Koettstoerfer 
No.) — Iodine Number — Reichert-Meissl, Reichert-WoUny 
Number — Acetyl Value — Free Fatty Acids and Acid Value 
or Number — Unsaponifiable Matter — Qualitative Tests — 
Color Tests — Examination of the Fatty Acids — Cholesterol 
and Sitosterol (Phytosterol) — Examination of Oils for Purity i 

CHAPTER II 

Perilla Oil — Linseed Oil, Flaxseed Oil — Proportion of Oil in 
Seeds — Boiled Linseed Oil — China Wood Oil, Chinese Tung 
Oil, China Nut Oil — Heat or Coagulation Test for China 
Wood Oil — Japanese Tung Oil, Japanese Wood Oil — Candle 
Nut Oil, Lumbang Oil— Stillingia Oil, Tallow Seed Oil- 
Hemp Seed Oil — Walnut Oil — Soya Bean Oil — Poppy Seed 
Oil — Sunflower Oil — Corn Oil — Cottonseed Oil — Sesame Oil, 
Rape Oil, Colza Oil— Almond Oil— Peanut Oil— Tea Seed 
Oil— Olive Oil— Castor Oil— Animal Oils— Fish Oils— 
Menhaden Oil — Japanese Sardine Oil, or Fish Oil — Sardine 
Oil— Sabnon Oil— Herring Oil— Liver Oils— Cod Liver Oil 
— Shark Liver Oil — Dogfish Liver Oil — Blubber Oils — 
Whale Oil— Turtle Oil— Porpoise Oil— Dolphin Oil— Ter- 
restrial Animal Oils — Silkworm Oils, Chrysahs Oil — 
Egg Oil— Neat's-foot Oil— Palm Oil— Cacao Butter- 
Chinese Vegetable Tallow— Palm Nut Oil, Pahn Kernel 
Oil — Cocoanut Oil — Japan Wax — Animal Fats — Bone 
Fat— Tallow— Beef Tallow— Horse Fat— Butter Fat- 
Butter Substitute — Renovated Butter — Waxes — Sperm 
Oil — Solid Waxes— Carnauba Wax— Wool Wax or Wool 

Grease — Beeswax — Spermaceti — Insect Wax 30 

vii 



Viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER III 

Uses of Oils— Edible Oils— Salad Oils— Edible Fats— Oils for 
Medicinal Purposes — Burning or Illuminating Oils — Paint 
Oils — Lubricating Oils — Wool Oils, Cloth Oils — Hydrogen- 
ated or Hardened Oils or Fats — Boiled Oils — Varnishes — 
Enamels — Paints — Blown Oils, Oxidized Oils — Rubber Sub- 
stitute, Vulcanized Oils — Nitrated Oils — Sulphonated Oils — 
Candles — Fatty Acids — Soap Stock Fatty Acids — Soap — 
Glycerin — Polishes — Foots, Soap Stock — Greases — Sod Oil, 
Degras io6 

CHAPTER IV 

Sampling — Tank Cars — Barrels — Cases — Storage Tanks — Seeds, 

Cake 119 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



CHAPTER I 



Vegetable and animal oils, and fats (as distinct from 
mineral oils, or petroleums), are compounds of ca^rbon, 
hydrogen and oxygen which are found naturally in all 
plants and animals. 

The word oils is generally applied to the varieties liquid 
at ordinary temperatures, and fats, to those solid at 
ordinary temperatures. Oils and fats are chemical 
combinations of glycerin as a base with the so-called 
fatty acids. 

The combination forms the so-called neutral oil or 
fat. There is a large number of different kinds of fatty 
acids. The different kinds of oils found in nature are 
due to the number of fatty acids. Any one oil gen- 
erally has some one kind of acid predominant in it, 
and along with this predominant acid it will have 
besides a number of the other acids in smaller amounts. 
The different acids each have different properties, and 
impart these differences to the oils in which they occur. 
No one oil, however, has any fixed combination of the 
different fatty acids present in it, but the proportions 
of these will vary with the locality, soil, season, food 
(in the case of animals), and various other factors. 
This accounts for differences between the same species 



2 COMMERCIAL OILS 

of oil from different places, or harvested at different 
times. 

Examples of the fatty acids, with their occurrence 
are as follows: 

Butyric acid, butter. 

Valeric acid, porpoise. 

Laurie acid, cocoanut, palm nut. 

Palmitic acid, palm, and other vegetable and animal 
fats. 

Stearic acid, animal and vegetable fats. 

Arachidic acid, peanut. 

Oleic acid, most vegetable and animal oils and fats. 

Erucic acid, rape, fish. 

Linolic acid, drying oils. 

Linolenic acid, linseed and other drying oils. 

Ricinoleic acid, castor. 

It must not be supposed that any of the above acids 
are the only acids in "the oils named. Thus cocoanut 
oil, besides lauric acid, will contain stearic, palmitic, 
oleic, etc., in varying proportions. 

General Properties 

All oils are lighter than water. When pure they are 
colorless, but most commercial oils are yellow, or even 
of darker colors due to impurities. Oils are odorless 
and tasteless when pure, the taste and odor of commercial 
oils being due to impurities. 

Oils are insoluble in water, but readily soluble in 
ether, chloroform, benzene, carbon bisulphide, carbon 
tetrachloride, turpentine, petroleum oils and spirits. 
They are only partially soluble in alcohol (except castor 
oil). 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 3 

They do not give off inflammable vapors unless they 
are quite hot. They will burn with a wick. They will not 
distill like petroleum, but decompose under strong heat.^ 

If kept from the action of air, light and moisture, 
oils will remain unaffected for great lengths of time. 
Oils have been found unchanged which were buried for 
several thousands of years in ancient tombs. 

Oils absorb oxygen from the air. The oils classified 
as drying oils rapidly absorb oxygen, becoming thick 
and forming hard films. Linseed oil is an example. 
The non-drying oils absorb oxygen at a slower rate, and 
become rancid in the process (see later discussion of 
rancidity). Moisture and light also cause formation 
of rancidity. 

Rancidity and Free Fatty Acids 

The property of an oil developing rancidity and free 
fatty acids is so important commercially that it is 
worthy of special attention. Rancidity means prac- 
tically a disagreeable smell and taste in an oil. When 
an oil turns rancid the free fatty acids increase. Ran- 
cidity and free fatty acids are not, however, synonymous 
terms, as rancidity is not due to the free fatty acids, but 
to other substances formed from them. 

An oil is a combination of glycerin and fatty acids. 
When moisture and ferments are present in an oil, the 
combination of glycerin and fatty acid is gradually 
broken up, so that part of the glycerin^ and part of the 
fatty acids are present in a free state. This part of the 

1 From 400 to 600° F. 

2 Glycerin being soluble in water, when free is generally in the water 
portion of an oil, except when present in large amount. See p. 87. 



4 COMMERCIAL OILS 

fatty acids is called the free fatty acid of the oil. This 
action increases with time. Some oils turn rancid much 
quicker than others. As an example of what increase 
may occur in storage of oils the following results ob- 
tained in the author's laboratory are quoted: 



Oil. 



Fish 

Whale 

Castor 

Peanut 

Extracted bean 
Refined rape. . . 
Shark liver. . . . 

Turtle 

Cocoanut 



Free Fatty Ac 


February. 


July. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


11.28 


11.70 


9 


02 


9-59 


7 


47 


7.90 


7 


19 


8. II 


I 


20 


1 . 20 




63 


1.62 




63 


•99 




52 


1.20 




14 


.21 




35 


•35 




14 


•14 




.14 


.21 




14 


.14 


4 


23 


430 


5 


53 


6.13 


6 


63 


9.24 


3 


74 


4.02 



Increase. 

Per Cent. 
.42 

•57 
•43 
•92 
.0 

•99 
•36 
.68 
.07 
.0 
.0 
.07 
.0 
.07 
.60 
2.61 
.28 



The above samples were stored in tight tin cans at 
an average temperature of 65° F. 

From these results it will be seen that there is con- 
siderable variation in the increase of the acids, both 
between different oils and, also, between different sam- 
ples of the same oil. These differences depend largely 
on the degree of refining and care in preparation, and 
also on the amount of moisture present. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 5 

The free fatty acids when acted upon by oxygen of 
ths air and hght develop other compounds of bad smell 
and taste. It is these latter compounds that cause ran- 
cidity in an oil. Of course the higher the percentage of 
free fatty acids the more opportunity there is for the 
formation of the substances causing rancidity. 

Perhaps the most common fatty acid in oils is oleic 
acid, which is present in some amount in practically 
all oils. For this reason the percentage of free fatty 
acid as determined by analysis is usually expressed as 
oleic acid. 

The free fatty acid of cocoanut oil is sometimes ex- 
pressed as lauric acid, as this acid is present in cocoanut 
oil in large amount. Percentage of oleic acid is con- 
verted to lauric acid by multiplying by 0.71. To con- 
vert percentage as lauric to oleic multiply by 1.41. 
Likewise the free fatty acid of palm oil is sometimes 
expressed in terms of palmitic acid. To convert per- 
centage as oleic acid to percentage as palmitic acid, 
multiply by 0.91. To convert palmitic to oleic, multi- 
ply by I.I. 

Classification 

Lewkowitsch classifies fats and oils according to the 
readiness with which they absorb oxygen, i.e., their 
*' drying" properties, and, according to whether they 
are of animal or vegetable origin, as follows: 

I. Liquid Fats or Oils: 
A . Vegetable oils. 

I. Drying oils: linseed, perilla, tung or Chi- 
nese wood, soya. 



CALIFORNIA COLLEGE 

of PHARMACY 



6 COMMERCIAL OILS 

2. Semi-drying oils: cottonseed, corn, sesame, 

rape. 

3. Non-drying oils: peanut, olive, castor, 

almond. 

B. Animal oils. 

1. Marine animal oils. 

a. Fish oils: menhaden, salmon, sar- 

dine, herring. 

b. Liver oils: cod, shark. 

c. Blubber oils: whale, porpoise, seal, 

turtle. 

2. Terrestrial animal oils: neat's-foot, silk- 

worm oil. 

II. SoHd Fats: 

A. Vegetable fats. Palm, cacao butter, cocoanut, 

Japan wax. 

B. Animal fats: 

1. Drying fats: icebear, rattlesnake. 

2. Semi-drying fats: wild duck, horse, rabbit. 
3 Non-drying fats: lard, tallow, butter. 

The waxes which are related to fats are classified as 
follows: 

1. Liquid waxes — sperm oil. 

2. Solid waxes. 

1. Vegetable — carnauba, raphia, palm. 

2. Animal — beeswax, spermaceti, Chinese wax, 

wool wax. 
It will be noted that sperm oil and spermaceti are 
properly classed as waxes. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



Preparation of Oils and Fats from their Raw Ma- 
terials 

In general the methods of obtaining oils and fats are 
simple. Only the general methods will be discussed 
here. Any special methods affecting the commercial 
properties of an oil will be mentioned imder the descrip- 
tion of that particular oil. 

The general methods are the following: 

(i) Rendering — that is, heating the oil-containing 
material with water or steam, until the oil exudes from 
its enclosing cells, and collects on top of the water. 
It may then be separated. This may be carried out 
in tanks heated by coils, or in digesters, i.e., boilers 
into which live steam is injected. 

Rendering is chiefly used for animal fats, as lard, 
tallow, whale oil, and is of little importance for vege- 
table fats. (See cocoanut oil.) 

(2) Expressing. This process is chiefly used for 
vegetable oils. The machines used have been gradually 
improved from primitive trituration in mortars or wedge 
presses, to the modern hydraulic press. The process 
consists simply of forcing the oil out of its cells by 
pressure. The hydrauhc press is the common means 
of applying the pressure, though crude native methods 
are still used in some countries. 

Practically all edible vegetable oils are obtained by 
expression, and expression of such oils is done at as low 
temperature as possible. Oils for technical uses are 
expressed hot. More oil is obtained from seeds when 
expressed hot. The quahty is, however, poorer. The 



8 COMMERCIAL OILS 

first oil expressed is the lowest in free fatty acids and 
of the best quality. ^ 

The quality of the oil expressed also depends on the 
quality of the seeds. The oil in the seeds may become 
rancid, just as it does after it is pressed. Seeds should 
be kept dry, well ventilated and out of bright light. 
Moisture especially will cause the formation of free 
fatty acids in the seeds and the development of ran- 
cidity. 

(3) Extracting. In this process the oil is dissolved 
out from other accompanying material by some solvent, 
in which the oil only dissolves. Such solvents are 
gasoline (or petroleum ether which is a light gasoline), 
carbon bisulphide, carbon tetrachloride, benzol, chloro- 
form, acetone, ether. Only gasoline and carbon bi- 
sulphide are used on a large scale, the other solvents 
being too expensive. Extraction processes cannot be 
used for obtaining oils for edible purposes, as a bad 
tast3 v/ill be left in the oil, no matter how carefully or 
thoroughly the solvent is afterwards separated. Such 
oils can only be used for technical purposes. 

It sometimes happens that the natural odor and flavor 
of a crude oil prevent the determination by smell and 
taste whether the oil is extracted or not. If, however, 
such an oil be refined and deodorized for edible use, 
the taste and smell of the solvent remaining would be 
detectable. Chemical methods will give the final 
answer as to whether an oil is extracted or not. 

The solvent used in extracting the oil is, of course, 

^ Two, three, and sometimes more expressions are often made, the 
first cold, and succeeding ones at higher temperatures. Often expressing 
is followed by extraction with solvents. 



CALIFORNIA COLLEGE 

of PHARMACY 

LE AND ANIMAL^ ' 



VEGETABLE 

used over and over again. It is separated from the dis- 
solved oil by distillation. A small loss of solvent occurs. ^ 

Oil Cake 

The residue left after the oil has been extracted by 
Dne of the foregoing methods is called the cake. Cake 
from expression processes still contains considerable 
oil; in some cases as much oil is left in the cake as has 
been obtained. The amount of oil left in the cake de- 
pends on the raw material, temperature, pressure and 
type of machine used. Cakes from extraction proc- 
esses contain very little oil. 

Cakes are used for stock food and fertilizing purposes. 
Not all cakes can be used for stock food. Some, as for 
example castor seed cake, contain poisonous substances. 
Cakes from extraction processes are sometimes used as 
cattle food, but generally are not favored for such use, 
and find their main outlet as fertilizers. The oil left 
in the cake becomes of value when it is used as a stock 
food, but has no value when used as a fertilizer. 

A stock food is valued on the following components: 
(The last three being more or less detrimental.) 

1. Oil or fats. 

2. Carbohydrates, including starch and sugars. 

3. Proteids, or nitrogen containing substances. 

4. Indigestible matter, called '^ crude fiber.'' 

5. Mineral matter, or ash. 

6. Moisture. 

A fertilizer is valued differently, as follows: 

* Extraction 5delds higher amounts of oil than expression. Extrac- 
tion by laboratory methods jdelds practically 100 per cent of the con- 
tained oil. Commercially the yields are somewhat lower. 



10 COMMERCIAL OILS 

1. Nitrogen (or ammonia). 

2. Phosphoric acid, or bone phosphate. 

3. Potash (as K2O). 

4. Moisture. 

Nitrogen is the chief fertihzing value in oil cakes. 

Refining 

Oils, as first obtained, generally contain impurities 
in the form of fiber and mucilaginous matter, moisture, 
dirt or insoluble sediment, free fatty acids, etc., and in 
order to make the best grade, need refining. Refining 
is done by a number of different methods. 

Standing for some time settles out much of the sedi- 
ment, water, fiber, mucilaginous matter. Standing 
cold is especially efficacious as some of the impurities 
are only slightly soluble in oil at low temperatures. 
Washing out the oils with boihng water is another method 
of getting rid of some of the mucilaginous matter. 
Free fatty acids are removed by treatment with alkalies. 

Filtration through such substances as fuller's earth, 
charcoal, etc., is used to clarify and decolorize oils, 
especially for edible purposes. Treatment with sul- 
phuric acid is used for rape and Unseed oils. There 
are a number of bleaching processes using chemicals. 
Chlorine, bleaching powder, bichromates, sulphites have 
been used, along with a number of others. Bleaching 
by oxygen is done either by exposure to air and sunlight, 
or the oxygen is introduced as a gas or as ozone. 

Edible oils are, in general, the best grade of any oil 
produced, and need special attention in their prepara- 
tion and refining. The raw material must be fresh 
and of the best grade, and the oil extracted as quickly 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 11 

as possible after harvesting. The oil of first expres- 
sion, being of the best quality, is used for edible oil. 
Refining is done by clarifying by fuller's earth^ or animal 
charcoal, and free fatty acids are removed by alkalies. 
Aside from this, however, no chemical processes of 
bleaching or refining can be used for edible oils. The 
clarifying and refining takes out, besides the free fatty 
acids and insoluble matter, any substances such as fer- 
ments which would cause later development of free 
fatty acids and rancidity.^ 

It is not desirable that edible oils should congeal at 
low temperatures, that is, they should not deposit a soHd 
fat. The oil is therefore cooled by refrigeration, where- 
upon the " stearine " settles out or is filtered out. The 
oil which remains Kquid will not deposit any further 
sediment. This is " winter oil," so-called because it 
used to be held over wintertime in order to separate out 
the " stearine." 

^ " Stearine "is the name applied to fats which settle 
out of liquid oils. These fats are of higher melting- 
point than the bulk of the oil in which they occur. 

Practically any vegetable oil may be used for edible 
purposes, except certain ones which contain poisonous 
substances, such as China wood or tung oil, castor, 
candle-nut and croton. Aside from such considera- 
tion then the judgment as to whether an oil is edible or 
not rests on its taste and smell. 

1 Fuller's earth is a mineral product resembling clay in its chemical 
composition. It has a great absorbent power for coloring matter, 
hence its value in clarifying and decolorizing. 

2 The loss in weight due to taking out all these substances by refining 
is called the refining loss. It may be determined in the laboratory 
approximately. See also specifications for cottonseed, peanut, etc. 



12 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Some oils may contain a much higher percentage of 
free fatty acids than others, and still be edible. Also 
an oil with no free fatty acids may not be desirable 
because of a flat taste. 

Many attempts have been made to deodorize fish oils 
to render them fit for edible uses, but so far without 
much success. Cod Hver oil seems to be about the only 
fish oil that is taken internally, and that without much 
pleasure. 

Oils should be stored at as low a temperature and be 
kept as free from moisture as possible. If kept from 
air, fight and moisture, oils will keep indefinitely, as 
has been shown by oils buried with mummies in Egyp- 
tian tombs, which have not developed free fatty acids 
in several thousand years. 

Physical and Chemical Properties and Reactions of Oils 

Under this head wifi be discussed briefly a number of 
technical methods which are used in the examination 
of oils to determine their quality and purity. 

It must be understood that there is no absolute method 
of determining the purity of an oil, all of the methods 
used being comparative. For instance, if a chemist is 
called upon to determine the purity of a sample of table 
salt, he can determine absolutely the percentage of 
sodium chloride present, and also the percentage of 
impurities. Such absolute and exact methods are not 
appficable in the case of oils unfortunately. 

In judging the purity of an oil we have to depend on 
past experience. Certain properties of oils, which are 
called " constants '' or ^' characteristics " have been 
found to have always the same values (within certain 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 13 

limits) for the same oil. Whenever then, a sample of oil 
is examined, these characteristics are determined. If 
their values correspond to the values which the oil in 
question has been found to possess by past experience, 
then we conclude it is pure. If the values of the char- 
acteristics differ radically from past experience, sus- 
picion is at once thrown upon the purity of the oil. 
Various special tests are then used to confirm the pres- 
ence of adulteration. 

Other properties are called " variables." The values 
of the variables vary with the purity, rancidity, age, etc., 
of the oil. Still other methods of examination are used 
for accidental impurities. 

Important characteristics of oils are: iodine number," 
saponification number, refractive index, viscosity, speci- 
fic gravity, titer. 

Variables are free fatty acids, color, unsaponifiable 
matter, acetyl number (except in the case of castor 
oil where it is a characteristic). Accidental impurities 
are water, insoluble matter. 

Moisture or Water 

The determination of water is important from the 
buyer's standpoint, because he does not wish to pay for 
water at the same rate as oil. The presence of water 
also causes oil to become rancid more quickly. Some oils 
can hold up to about ^ per cent of water and still be 
clear. Above that amount the presence of water is 
shown by turbidity. Various crude methods are used 
for estimating water, but their results cannot be depended 
on for all oils. Special apparatus and care is necessary 
for the exact determination of water. 

CALIFORNIA COLLEtf 

r^ DUARMAHY 



14 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Insoluble Sediment, Dirt, Foreign Substance ^ 

Includes solid non-fatty matter, remains of animal or 
vegetable tissue, sand. The determination is important 
in the case of crude oils which have been prepared 
without much care. 

Specific Gravity 

The specific gravity of any one oil will always be very 
nearly the same. For instance, the specific gravity of 
soya bean oil from many sources will vary from .922 to 
.926 at 15.5° C, but will seldom, if ever, fall outside 
these Umits. 

Specific gravity is the ratio of the weight of a given 
volume of oil (or any other substance) to the weight of 
the same volume of water, the specific gravity of which 
is arbitrarily called i.oo. For example, the weight 
of a gallon of soya bean oil is .922 the weight of a gallon 
of water, and so on.^ 

Specific gravity also varies with the temperature, and 
is less, the hotter the oil. (This, of course, is due to 
expansion of volume by heat.) For this reason, to be 
comparable, specific gra\dties always have to be deter- 
mined at some one agreed-upon temperature. This 
temperature, whenever possible, is 15.5° C, or 60° F. 
To change specific gravities taken at any other tempera- 
ture to that at 15.5° or 60° F. the factor of .00064 for 
each degree Centigrade, or for each i.8° F.^ is to be 

^ Also called impurities. 

' See p. 133 for weight per gallon of various oils. 
3 One degree on the Centrigrade thermometric scale is equivalent 
to 1.8 degrees on the Fahrenheit scale. See p. 134. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 15 

either added or subtracted, depending on whether the 
oil is hotter or cooler than the standard temperature. 

If a chemist should report to you a gravity taken at 
25.5° C. and you w^ished to change it to compare with 
one at 15.5° C , multiply .00064 by 10 = .0064, and add 
the product .0064 to the specific gravity determined at 
25.5° C. The sum will be the specific gravity at 15.5° C. 
Specific gravity of all oils is less than i, ranging from 
.910 to .965 with some of the waxes above or below 
(sperm oil) these limits. The determination of specific 
gra\dty is important in establishing purity. 

Specific gravity is also sometimes expressed by certain 
empirical scales as degrees. Such a scale is Baume's 
scale, which is sometimes used for oils, and very com- 
monly used for petroleum oils. For liquids lighter than 
water the Baume degree number increases, the lighter 
the liquid becomes. A table showing the comparison 
between the Baume scale and specific gravity is given 
on page 133. 

Melting-, Solidifying-, and Freezing-points 

Neither of these properties is very important in the 
examination of oils to determine purity. The freezing- 
point is important in the examination of lubricating oils. 

The melting-point of oils and fats is not of much value 
as an indication of purity, as it is hard to determine by 
an invariable method, and also the melting-point of 
natural oils and fats varies considerably. 

The melting-point of the fatty acids prepared from an 
oil is more constant, and is used especially on hard fats. 

The soHdifying-point of an oil is rarely taken. The 
same remarks apply as for melting-points. The sohdi- 



16 COMMERCIAL OILS 

fying-point of the fatty acids is more definite. The 
titer test is one way of determining the solidifying- 
point of the fatty acids. It is done under certain 
standard conditions, that may be exactly duplicated by 
two chemists working independently. 

When the fatty acids solidify, a thermometer immersed 
in them drops to a certain point at which there occurs 
a small rise as solidification commences. After this the 
thermometer again drops. The top point of the rise 
is taken as the " titer " or " titre." Titer is expressed 
in degrees Centigrade. This test is much used on lard 
and tallow to detect foreign admixture. It is also 
valuable in the examination of fats for candle-making 
purposes.^ Titer is a characteristic of the fatty acids 
of an oil or fat, and as such may be used to estabHsh 
purity. 

The pour test, used for lubricating oils, is used to 
determine the temperature at which the oil remains 
liquid, as this point is of considerable importance for 
such oils. It is carried out under standard conditions. 
' Cold tests^ or cloud tests are used to determine the 
temperature at which soKd matter or stearine separates 
out of an oil, or the temperature at which an oil will 
remain clear without such separation. They are used in 
the case of cottonseed, neat's-foot and sperm oils. 

Refractive Index 

This is a characteristic of liquid fats or oils which is 
based on certain properties of the oil in deflecting a 
beam of fight passing through the oil. This deflection 

^ See p. 113. 
2 See p. 51, 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 17 

can be measured (by an instrument called a refrac- 
tometer) and affords a method of determining whether 
an oil is pure or not. Refractive indices should be 
taken as a standard temperature (which is usually 
40° C). The temperature at which the determination 
is made should always be stated.^ 

Color 

Color in vegetable and animal oils is generally judged 
by the eye, except in the case of cottonseed oil and some 
other refined edible oils. Color is determined by an 
instrument called the Lovibond tintometer. This is 
an apparatus for matching definite shades of color 
with the oil under examination, so that its color may be 
definitely stated. 

Cottonseed has for a long time been bought and sold 
on definite color determinations. ^ At the present time 
the tendency is to specify definite colors on other edible 
oils cis soya, cocoanut and peanut. 

The Interstate Cottonseed Crushers Association has 
adopted a standard bleaching test, which determines 
the color to which an oil, first refined by alkah, can 
be afterwards bleached by a standard fuller's earth. 

Viscosity 

Viscosity may be defined as the internal friction of an 
oil, or its resistance to flow. Oils vary in this property 
and it may be used in the examination of oils to detect 
adulteration. It is especially valuable in the examina- 
tion of lubricating oils. Viscosity is usually measured 

1 Refractive index is especially used in the case of china wood oil. 

2 See various specifications under cottonseed oil. 



18 COMMERCIAL OILS 

by the time taken by a certain volume of oil at a certain 
temperature to flow through a small orifice. Several 
styles of apparatus are used, as for instance, Engler's, 
Saybolt's, Redwood's, Tagliabues'. Each of these gives 
different results, so that the kind of apparatus on which 
the determination k made (as well as the temperature), 
should always be stated. The tim^e of flow is expressed 
in seconds. The time of flow of the oil in seconds, 
divided by the time of flow of the same volume of water 
under the same conditions, is called the " specific 
viscosity." The higher the temperature the lower 
is the viscosity. (Which is the same as saying an oil 
becomes thinner when heated.) The U. S. Bureau of 
Standards has worked out a table comparing several 
different viscosimeters, which enables results obtained 
in one apparatus to be converted to terms of 
another. 

See page 285, Volume XV (1915), Part I, Proceedings 
American Society of Testing Materials. 

It is unfortunate that some one of the various viscosim- 
eters cannot be adopted as standard, thus eliminating 
the confusion attendant upon converting readings of 
one to leadings of other instruments. 

In the following table the oils are arranged in order 
of their viscosity, castor oil being the highest. 

Castox . 

China wood. 

OKve. 

Lard. 

Rape. 

Neat's-foot. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 19 

Peanut. 
Linseed. 
Cottonseed. 

Saponification Value or Number (Koettstoerf er Number) 

This is a characteristic value of oils and fats, capable 
of exact determination, and indicating their purity. 
It is expressed as the number of miUigrams^ of potassium 
hydrate (caustic potash) required to completely saponify 
I gram of oil, or in other words, it represents the per- 
centage of caustic potash (expressed in tenths of a 
per cent) required to saponify an oil. Thus an oil hav- 
ing a saponification number of 200 requires 200 tenths 
per cent, or 20 per cent caustic potash to completely 
saponify it. 

Besides identifying an oil and establishing its purity, 
this constant is used by the soap maker to determine 
the amount of alkalies necessary to combine with a given 
fat to form a soap, and also as a rough measure of the 
glycerin content. (See page 116.) 

The saponification number of most oils lies between 
190 and 200. Exceptions to this statement are rape, 
castor, fish and liver oils, which are below, and cocoanut 
and palm nut above these figures. 

It must be remembered that unsaponifiable matter 
in an oil will lower the saponification number, so that 
the two determinations should always be made together. 
Likewise large amounts of free fatty acids will raise the 
saponification number. 

1 A milligram is ^iho gram. A gram is about -^g ounce avoirdupois. 



20 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Iodine Number 

This is perhaps the most important smgle characteris- 
tic or constant of oils as far as determining puiity is 
concerned. It was noted above that the saponification 
numbers of most oils varied between 190 and 200, with 
a few exceptions. Iodine numbers on the contrary 
run all the way from i to over 200. The determination 
of the iodine number at once therefore places an unknown 
oil, approximately at least. 

The iodine number is defined as the number of milli- 
grams of iodine absorbed by i gram of a fat or oil. 
The determination is carried out by several different 
methods, (Hiibl, Hanus, Wijs) which may give some- 
what varying results. It is well, therefore, to state the 
method employed in making the determinations. 

The iodine value and the absorbing power for oxygen 
run parallel. High iodine values therefore denote 
drying oils, valuable for varnish, paint, etc. 

The table on page 21 gives the commoner oils classi- 
fied according to their iodine values: 

Bromine Value 

This is similar to iodine value and is sometimes sub- 
stituted for it. 

Reichert-Meissl, Reichert-WoUny Number 
is the number of cubic centimeters of decinormal caustic 
potash solution required to neutralize the volatile fatty 
acids distilled in a certain way. In other words, this 
number is a measure of the fatty acids of an oil which 
are capable of being distilled. Not many oils contain 
volatile fatty acids, so that this determination is not 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



21 



Drying oils 



Semi-drying oils. 



Non-drying oils . 



Fish oils. 



Liver oils. . . 
Blubber oils , 



Vegetable fats. 



Animal fats. 



Waxes 



Perilla 

Linseed 

Tung, Japanese and 

Chinese 

Soya 

Poppy seed 

Maize or com 

Cottonseed 

Sesame 

Ravison 

Rape 

Almond 

Peanut or arachis. . . 

Rice 

Teaseed 

Olive 

Castor 

Menhaden 

Sardine 

Japanese sardine . . . 

Salmon 

Herring 

Seal 

Whale 

Pahn 

Cacao butter 

Vegetable tallow . . . 

Palmnut 

Cocoanut 

Lard 

Beef tallow 

Mutton tallow 

Butter 

Sperm oil 

Carnauba wax 

Beeswax 

Spermaceti 

Insect wax 



Iodine Number. 
196-206 
173-201 

150-170 
130-143 

133-143 
III-130 
I08-IIO 
103-108 
IOI-I22 
94-102 

93- 97 

83-100 
91-106 
8s- 90 
79- 88 
83- 90 

139-173 

161-193 

100-187 

155-165 

123-142 

130-170 

127-193 

121-146 

51- 57 

32- 41 

19-38 

13- 17 

8- 10 

46- 70 

38- 46 

35- 46 

26- 50 

81- 90 

12- 14 

8- II 



22 COMMERCIAL OILS 

very important. It is chiefly used in the examination 
of butter fat, which has a Reichert number of 26-33. 
Cocoanut has 7, porpoise oils 23-65, dolphin 6, turtle 5, 
croton 12-14, maize or corn 4-10. These are the 
only common oils, however, which have considerable 
numbers. 

Acetyl Value 

Certain of the fats on being treated with acetic anhy- 
dride combine with a so-called " acetyl " group. After- 
wards from such combination, acetic acid can be ob- 
tained. The acetyl value is a measure of the ability 
of oils to react with acetic anhydride. This is especially 
important in the examination of castor oil, as it has the 
highest acetyl value of any oil. A number of the other 
oils have considerable acetyl values, but it happens 
in the other oils that the acetyl value increases with the 
age of the oil, so that it is not such a valuable character- 
istic in the examination of other oils than castor. 

Free Fatty Acids and Acid Value or Number 

The free fatty acid is that portion of the fatty acid of 
an oil which is uncombined with glycerin (or other base 
in the case of waxes) (see page loi). The free fatty 
acids are not a constant or characteristic of an oil, but 
change according to age, method of preparation and treat- 
ment. Their determination is very important as 
showing the quality of the oil. For most oils the free 
fatty acids are expressed as per cent in terms of oleic 
acid, since oleic acid is the most common of the fatty 
acids in oils. (See also page 5.) Sometimes the free 
fatty acids in lubricating oils are expressed in terms 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 23 

of sulphuric d,cid, or sulphuric anhydride (SO3). This 
does not necessarily mean, however, that sulphuric acid 
is present in such an oil.^ 

The acid value is merely another way of expressing 
the free acidity. Acid value is converted to percentage 
of free fatty acids (as oleic) by multiplying the acid num- 
ber by one-half, or twice the free fatty acids gives the 
acid number. 

Unsaponifiable Matter 

Strictly speaking this is all matter in an oil which is 
not capable of uniting with alkali; that is, saponifying. 
The glycerin would be included under unsaponifiable 
with this definition, however, and so the further proviso 
is added, that so-called unsaponifiable matter must 
also be insoluble in water. Most oils or fats include 
some small quantities of naturally occurring unsaponi- 
fiable matter, but these rarely exceed 2 per cent (except 
in Hver oils). Larger quantities than this, therefore, 
at once raise the suspicion that mineral oils are present. 
Mineral oils are completely unsaponifiable. Sperm oil 
also naturally contains up to 30 per cent unsaponi- 
fiable matter, but sperm oil is properly classed as a 
wax. The determination of unsaponifiable matter in 
an oil is especially important to the soap maker, as all 
unsaponifiable matter in an oil is loss to him as far 
as soap making is concerned. 

Mineral oils, rosin oils, parafiin, ceresin and coal tar 
oils are looked for in unsaponifiable matter, if this is 

1 Sulphuric acid is sometimes left in oil from refining processes, to 
the detriment of the oil, hence the origin of this method of expression 
of the acid content. 



24 COMMERCIAL OILS 

unnaturally high in an oil. Special tests are applied 
for each. 

Qualitative Tests 

Various tests, for distinguishing certain oils or classes 
of oils, which do not give results capable of exact 
measurement, are called qualitative tests. Some of 
these are as follows: 

Elaidin Test. Based on behavior of oils with nitric 
acid. Non-drying oils give solid products while semi- 
drying and drying oils give hquid products. This test 
might be used, for example, to distinguish between a 
drying and non-drying oil. 

Sulphur Chloride Test. When treated with this 
chemical, drying oils give soHd bodies, insoluble in 
carbon bisulphide, while non-drying oils give soluble 
products. 

The absorption of oxygen may also be used to dis- 
tinguish between drying and non-drying oils. 

Other such tests are heat reaction^ such as the 
Maumene test, etc., but these are not much used at 
present. Formerly much rehance was placed on the 
Maumene test, which consisted of measuring the rise 
of temperature due to mixing sulphuric acid with an 
oil. This method is susceptible to so many errors and 
uncertainties that it is Httle used nowadays. It may 
be used to distinguish between drying and non-drying 
oils, in a qualitative way. 

Color Tests 

Formerly various color tests were held to be of much 
importance. These were especially used to detect small 
amounts of one oil mixed with another. It has been 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 25 

demonstrated that most of these tests are not reliable, 
and they are now Httle used. Exceptions to this 
statement are Baudouin's test for sesame oil, Halphen 
test for cottonseed, Lieberman-Storch for rosin oil. 

Examination of the Fatty Acids 

Sometimes it is desirable to determine the constants 
or characteristics of the fatty acids, as some determina- 
tions are more exact and rehable when made on the fatty 
acids than on the original oil. For such determinations 
the fatty acids are prepared from the oil by saponify- 
ing and then setting free the fatty acids from the 
soap. 

In general the same characteristics as previously 
described may be determined for the fatty acids. It 
was noted on page i6 that the titer test there described, 
was the solidifying-point of the fatty acids, and that it 
was more exact than the determination of the sohdify- 
ing-point of the original oil. The fatty acids of most oils 
are insoluble in water. Butter fat, cocoanut oil, cotton- 
seed, lard and tallow, however, contain some amount 
of fatty acids soluble in water. 

Aside from the titer test, however, the examination 
of the fatty acids is not very important in the commercial 
examination of oils, but is used in special examinations 
to detect adulteration, etc. 

Cholesterol and Sitosterol (Phytosterol) 

These are substances occurring in the unsaponifiable 
matter of oils and fats. Cholesterol occurs only in 
animal fats and oils, while sitosterol (or phytosterol) 
occurs in vegetable oils. The presence of sitosterol 

CALIi r lA COLLtGE 

of PHARMAHV 



26 COMMERCIAL OILS 

therefore in an animal fat, would indicate admixture of 
vegetable oil, and vice versa. 

Examination of Oils for Purity 

The foregoing properties and reactions of oils are 
largely used in determining the purity of a sample of 
oil. The common determinations made for this purpose 
are specrdc gravity, iodine, and saponification numbers, 
per cent of unsaponifiable matter. Along with these are 
generally made special tests for each indi\ddual oil. 
These special tests will be enumerated under the de- 
scription of the individual oil. If the constants as Hsted 
above are found to be within the limits as defined by 
past experience for the oil in question, and the special 
tests are satisfactory, it is pronounced pure. 
To illustrate, a few examples will be given: 
A sample of rapeseed oil is analyzed and the constants 
are found to be 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9151 

Saponification number 1 74 

Iodine number 100 

Unsaponifiable matter i . 2% 

By reference to tables it is found that past experience 
nas shown the following limits for these constants: 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 913-.917 

Saponification number 170-179 

Iodine number 97-106 

Unsaponifiable matter 5-1 . 5% 

It is noted that the characteristics of the sample 
under examination fall well within these limits. The 



VEGETABLE AND ANINL^L 



27 



presumption is that it is pure. Besides these tests, 
however, the following special tests are often made on 
rapeseed oil: \'iscosity, freezing-point, Halphen test for 
cottonseed, Baudouin test for sesame, titer. If the 
viscosity, freezing-point and titer are within the limits 
of past experience, and the Halphen and Baudouin tests 
give negative reactions, then the chemist is warranted in 
sa}4ng that the sample is pure. 

But suppose the Halphen test for cottonseed had given 
a positive reaction. Then regardless of the fact that 
the specific gra\*ity, iodine number, saponification num- 
ber, etc., were within the limits for rapeseed oil, the 
chemist would pronounce the oil adulterated. 

It will be noted by reference to cottonseed oil that 
its average saponification number is 194, its iodine 
number in. 

The average constants for rapeseed and cottonseed 
oil are as follows: 



Rapeseed 



Cottonseed. 



Specific gravity 

Iodine number 

Saponification number . 




9245 



III 
194 



A mixture of 90 per cent rapeseed with 10 per 
cent cottonseed would then have the following values, 
if we assume the above values in the original con- 
stituents : 

Specific gravity 915 

Iodine number 102 

Saponification number 177 



28 COMMERCIAL OILS 

It will be noted that these values are still within the 
limits for rapeseed oil. Hence the value of the special 
Halphen test for the presence of cottonseed oil. Ten 
per cent cottonseed would also diminish the viscosity 
of the mixture enough to be noticeable, unless the 
viscosity of the original rapeseed oil had been specially 
high. 

Suppose now that it had been attempted to mix lo 
per cent of a fish oil having an iodine number of 170, 
with 90 per cent rape oil. The iodine number of the 
mixture would be 108, which is above the high limit 
for rapeseed oil, and would at once throw suspicion upon 
it. The specific gravity and saponification numbers 
would still, however, be within the limits for rapeseed. 
In this case the presence of chlolesterol in the unsaponi- 
fiable, the yield of bromides and viscosity, would give 
confirmatory e\^dence of the adulteration. 

As contrasted with the above method of examination 
may be cited the case of castor oil, whose characteristic 
solubihty in alcohol and petroleum ether is a quick 
and easy method of establishing its purity. China 
wood oil is also tested by a special heat test (see page 
38), which affords a quick method of determining 
admixture of other oils. 

Such cases as these, however, are the exception in 
the examination of oils, and most opinions as to the 
purity of the oil in question must be based on examina- 
tions similar to the first example. It is seen, therefore, 
that such an opinion can rarely be based on the results 
of any single determination. Practically always con- 
firmatory evidence must be obtained by the determina- 
tion of several characteristics and by various special tests. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIM.\L 29 

It must also be remembered that the same oil from 
different localities will vary considerably in its proper- 
ties. Also an oil-bearing plant may be introduced into 
a new country, with new cHmatic conditions, soil, etc., 
and the oil produced may have somewhat different 
characteristics than have been determined by past 
experience, based on oil from the plant in its native 
country. 

With animal fats the food of the animal often influ- 
ences the nature of the fat. For example, lard from pigs 
fed on cottonseed meal has a higher iodine value than 
other lard. 



CALIFORNIA COLLEGE 
of PHARMACY 



CHAPTER II 

In the following descriptions of oils, the characteristics 
and properties given in standard texts such as Lewko- 
witsch, Allen, etc., and various articles in technical 
journals have been given. Afterwards any deviations 
from such pubHshed results, as a result of the author's 
experience on Oriental oils as imported at Pacific Coast 
ports, have been noted. 

Perilla Oil 

China, Japan (Hokkaido), Eastern and Northern 
India, Southern Manchuria. Sown in April. Ripens 
in September. Several species are known. Attempts 
have been made to raise in United States, but were 
abandoned on account of unsatisfactory cake, which 
has pecuhar aromatic taste and smell. 

Has highest known iodine number of any oil, but 
drying power (oxygen absorbing) is not as high as Hn- 
seed. Used as substitute for linseed in printer's inks, 
varnishes, paints. In its native countries used for edible 
purposes. Also in Japan in preparation of artificial 
leather, paper goods, etc. It has a property of forming 
drops when spread on surfaces, so that it is inferior to 
linseed for varnish purposes. 

Characteristics 

' Specific gravity at 15.5° C 928-. 936 

Saponification number 188. 6-190.6 

Iodine number 196-206 

Refractive index 40° C 1-4753 

Melting-point — 5° C. 

30 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 31 

Perilla oil from China and Japan runs as high as .935 
in specific gravity. Acids will run as high as 6 per cent. 
Saponification number may be as high as 195. Some oil 
shows cottonseed oil admixed. The oil is generally 
dark colored. On heating it bleaches, and most samples 
do not deposit sediment on heating. Not a great deal 
of perilla oil is imported. 

Linseed Oil, Flaxseed Oil 

Argentine, United States, Canada, India, Russia 
China. Russian Baltic seed gives the best oil. Cana- 
dian oil is about the same. Argentine, Indian and 
United States seed give poorer grade oil. Argentine, 
Russia, India, United States, and Canada were chief 
producers in the order named before the war. 

The carefulness with which the seed is harvested 
influences the character of the oil. Hemp, ravison, 
rape and cameline are the commoner foreign seeds present 
in linseed. 

Proportion of Oil in Seeds 

Per Cent. 

Russian linseed 32-38 

Indian linseed 37-43 

River Plate linseed 35~36 

N. American linseed 36-38 

Levant Knseed 37-42 

Hungarian Unseed 36-38 

Morocco Knseed 36-40 

Sicilian Knseed 41-42 

Chinese Knseed (yellow-brown) .... 31-38 

Specifications of Chicago Board of Trade for flaxseed 
are as foUows: 



32 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Section i. — The weight per measured bushel designated for each 
grade shall be that of commercially pure seed. 

No. I Northwestern Flaxseed. — Flaxseed to grade No. i Northwestern 
shall be mature, commercially sound, dry and sweet. It shall be North- 
em grown or have the usual characteristics thereof. The maximum 
quantity of field, stack, storage or other damaged seed intermixed shall 
not exceed twelve and one-half per cent. The minimum weight shall be 
fifty-one (51) pounds to the measured bushel. 

No. I Flaxseed. — No. i flaxseed shall be commercially sound, dry and 
free from mustiness, and canning intermixed not more than twenty-five 
per cent of immature or field, stack, storage or other damaged flaxseed, 
and weighing not less than fifty (50) pounds to the measured bushel. 

Rejected Flaxseed. — All damp and must flaxseed and that carr>'ing 
intermixed, immature or field, stack, storage or other damaged flaxseed 
in excess of twenty per cent, and weighing not less than forty-six and one 
half (46I) pounds, shall be graded ''Rejected." 

No Grade Flaxseed. — Flaxseed that is wet, mouldy, warm or in a heat- 
ing condition, or is in anywise unfit for temporary storage, or weighs less 
than forty-six and one-half (46 j) pounds, shall be graded "No Grade." 

Flaxseed that is smoky, burnt, or intermixed with burnt seed, shall 
not be kno\Mi by any grade, but shall be inspected in the usual way to 
determine percentage of impurities, and shall be pasted as "Burnt or 
Smoky Flax." 

Seeds are either hot pressed, cold pressed or extracted 
by solvents. Hot pressing yields the best oil for tech- 
nical purposes, extracted oil not being considered as 
good. Cold pressed oil is used for edible oil in Russia, 
Germany and India. Hot pressing also gives the best 
cake for cattle food. Only hot-pressed cake should be 
fed to cattle, as cake pressed at too low a temperature 
is hable to develop poisonous prussic acid, while hot 
pressed cake is not Hable to this danger. Cakes not 
suitable for cattle food are used as fertilizers. Cake 
contains on an average: 

° Per Cent. 

Oil 4-8 

Albuminoids or crude protein 30-40 

Crude fiber 8-12 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 33 

Twenty-three to 28 per cent by weight of the seed 
is obtained as oil. Nearly 10 per cent of oil remains 
in the cake. Cold pressing gives pale edible, and 
also good dr^-ing oil. Hot pressing gives dark oil. 
Oil extracted by carbon bisulphide has garUc odor and 
is dark red. 

Linseed oil is much improved by standing in tanks 
and by exposure to light allowing the foreign sub- 
stances to settle out. Some is refined by sulphuric 
acid, and some by alkali, the latter being used to 
bleach dark oils. Best grade of linseed made by sun 
bleaching is called " artists' " oil. 

Raw oil is the original oil obtained from the seeds. 
Refined oil is oil obtained from the raw by one of the 
foregoing processes. Boiled oil is oil that has been 
heated and to which has been added certain substances 
known as " driers." Manganese and lead compoimds 
are conmionly used. A substitute boiled oil called 
"bimg oil" is obtained by adding a drier to the oil but 
not heating it. Boiled oil is red-brown in color, darker 
than raw oil. " Double boiled oil " is heated longer 
or with more drier added. It is darker in color. 

Linseed oil is used chiefly in the paint and varnish 
industry-, for which it is preeminently suited, as its 
properties make it the best dr\-ing oil known. Its use 
in putty, oil cloth, leather cloth, linoleimi and printer's 
ink depends also on its drying properties. In general 
the higher the specific gra\'ity and iodine number the 
better will a linseed oil be for the above uses. It is 
also used for soap, and rubber substitutes. Linseed oil 
is hydrogenated to a solid fat which is used in soap. 
Substitutes for linseed oil are perilla, Chinese and Japan- 



34 COMMERCIAL OILS 

ese wood, or tung oil, cottonseed, soya, fish, and other 
semi-drying oils. 

The '^ drying " property of linseed, and other drying 
oils, is their ability to take up oxygen from the air, 
forming a hard coating when a thin film is exposed to the 
action of the air. Good linseed oil should " dry " thus 
in less than three days. It should not be 'Hacky" (or 
sticky) to the fingers, and should form a good elastic 
coherent skin. Samples of linseed are compared with 
known good oils by coating glass plates and leaving 
them stand under similar conditions. 

The important characteristics to be determined in 
judging the purity of a sample of hnseed oil are: Specific 
gravity, iodine number, oxygen absorption, unsaponi- 
fiable matter and saponification number. Halphen test 
is applied for presence of cottonseed oil. Yield of hexa- 
bromides and their melting-point is used to detect 
adulteration by fish oils. 

Low iodine number indicates adulteration. Presence 
of fish oils can be detected by behavior of hexabro- 
mides in melting, also by cholesterol test. Adultera- 
tion with mineral and rosin oils is detected by unsaponi- 
fiable matter and saponification number. 

A test for the suitabiHty of hnseed oil for the paint 
and varnish trade is as follows: Heat a small amount 
of the oil in a test tube until it begins to boil up, about 
600° F. Good oil remains clear on cooHng and gen- 
erally becomes lighter in color. From inferior oils 
insoluble matter or foots will separate out and settle 
to the bottom of the test tube. In still poorer oils 
this matter does not settle, but remains suspended in 
the oil. ^ 



^' ^MARMACY 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



35 



The U. S. Government Specifications for linseed oil 
are as follows: 

The oil must be strictly pure, well-settled linseed oil, perfectly 
clear, and not show any deposits of "foots'' or a loss of more than 
0.2 per cent, when heated for one-half hour to a temperature of 
from 103° C. to 105° C; it must show on examination the following 
characters : 





Maximum. 


Minimum. 


Specific gravity at 15° C 

Specific gravity at 25° C 

Iodine value (Hanus) 


0.936 
0.931 

190 

192 

3 

1.4805 

1-5 


0.932 
0.927 

178 

189 


Saponification value 


Acid value^ 


Refractive index at 25° C 

Unsaponifiable matter, per cent 


1-479 



The oil, when poured on a glass plate and allowed to drain and dry in 
a vertical position, guarded from dust and exposure to weather, must 
dry free from tackiness in less than 75 hours at a temperature of from 
15.5° C. to 26.5° C. 

The specifications of the American Society for Testing 
Materials are as follows: 

15.5° c.^ 

Specific gravity at — „ ' 932 to . 936 

i5'5 ^• 

2C° C. 

Specific gravity at — — ^ 927 to .931 

Acid number^ not over 6.0 

Saponification number 189 to 195 

Unsaponifiable matter not over 1.50 

Refractive index at 25° C i-479 to 1.4805 

Iodine number not less than 1^6 

1 Free fatty acids, 1.5 per cent. 

2 This manner of expressing temperature at which specific gravity 
is taken, means the specific gravity of the oil at 15.5° C. is compared to 
that of water at 15.5° C. 

^ Free fatty acids, 3.0 per cent. 

CJVLls . ^ COLLtGt 
Pi PHABMACY 



36 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Characteristics: 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C. . .931-.941 

Solidifying-point Stearine deposits 

at -25° C. 

Melting-point - 16° to —20° C. 

Saponification number 188-195 

Iodine number 1 70-205 

Refractive index 20° C 1.480- 1.48 2 

Unsaponifiable matter 1-2%. Usually solid 

Titer 19.0-20.6° C. 

Bromides (on fatty acids) . . . 29-42% 

Melting-point of bromides. . 175-180° C. 

Flash-point (closed cup) 450-500° F. 

Boiled Linseed Oil 

Linseed oil heated to a temperature of 210 to 260° C. 
in presence of substances called driers, such as lead and 
manganese compounds, undergoes a change in color, 
specific gravity and drying properties. Boiled oil dries 
in twelve hours, where raw linseed oil takes three days. 
The characteristics of boiled oil are different from raw 
linseed oil. For example the iodine number varies 
from 70 to 160. The specific gravity is higher and the 
yield of bromides lower. The color is darker. The 
mineral matter (lead, manganese) easily distinguishes 
a boiled oil. It may be adulterated with rosin, rosin^ or 
mineral oils, fish or tung oils. Adulterations are harder 
to detect in boiled than in raw oils. 

^ Rosin oil is the heavier part of the distillate obtained by distilling 
pine resin. Rosin is the residue left from such distillation. 



VEGET.\BLE AND ANIMAL 37 

China Wood Oil, Chinese Tung Oil, China Nut Oil 

From the nuts of two varieties of a tree native of 
China, Indo-China, Tonkin, Annam, the tung yu shu 
and mu yu shu, the first being the most important. 
Provinces of Szechwan, Kweichow, Hunan and North- 
ern Hupeh are most important in the order named. 
Szechwan oil has the palest color. The tung y-u tree 
grows in the above provinces. The mu yu tree grows 
in Kwangsi. This gives the South China oil and its 
principal market is Wuchow; while the oil from the first 
named provinces is marketed from Hankow, by which 
name this grade is often called. 

The two trees yield practically the same oil chemic- 
ally. The difference between the grades appears to be 
mainly due to differences in methods of handling. It 
is obtained in a crude way by small producers and col- 
lected at Hankow by middlemen, where it is clarified 
and shipped. Cakes are poisonous and only used for 
fertilizer. By some it is claimed that the oil itself is 
poisonous. Cold pressed oil is pale; hot pressed, 
dark. It has a peculiar smell, said to be absent from 
fresh pressed oil. On keeping, the oil jelhes or solidifies 
or polymerizes. Crystal form which increase with time. 

While wood oil dries more quickly than linseed oil, 
it does not give an elastic film, but a waxlike opaque 
skin. When heated to 500° F. for a short time it 
sohdifies to a jelly-like mass.^ This property forms the 
basis of heat tests of China wood oil, which are very 
useful in determining its purity. 

On account of the high price of this oil it is often 
adulterated. Soya bean, sesame, cottonseed, etc., have 
1 Called polymerization. 



38 COMMERCIAL OILS 

been found. The New York Produce Exchange has 
adopted the following specifications: 

CHINA WOOD OIL 

Sec. 25. — Pure China wood oil shall answer the accepted chemical 
requirements. 

Sec. 26. — Commercially prime China wood oil shall be pale in color 
(according to season's production), merchantably free from foots, dirt 
and moisture; the total impurities shall not exceed i per cent; but, 
unless otherwise provided for, impurities not plainly adulterations, up 
to 5 per cent, shall not justify rejection, but allowance shall be made by 
sellers for such impurities in excess of i per cent. The oil shall stand 
the heat test, herewith subjoined. 

HEAT OR COAGULATION TEST FOR CHINA WOOD OILi 

One hundred grams of the oil is heated in an open metal pan, six 
inches in diameter, as rapidly as possible, to a temperature of 540 degrees 
F. The time required to heat the oil from room temperature to 540 
degrees should be, as nearly as possible, the same each time, four minutes 
being usually suflacient with gas burners. Hold the oil at or as near to 
540 degrees as possible, stirring until it begins to solidify. Note the 
time required after the oil reaches 540 degrees and until it begins to 
solidify. This should not exceed 7^ minutes for any commercially 
prime wood oil. When the oil has solidified in the pan, turn it out, 
while still hot and cut with a knife. Commercially prime wood oil 
gives a product that is pale, firm and cuts under the knife like dry bread, 
not sticking. If the oil requires more than 7I minutes after reaching 
540 degrees until beginning to solidify, or if the product is dark, soft or 
sticky, the oil may be rejected. 

Other heat tests are Bacon's, Browne's and the 
Pratt and Lambert tests. In Bacon's test the oil is 
heated nine minutes and compared in behavior with a 
known pure sample of oil. In Browne's method the 
oil is heated in test tubes and must set within twelve 
minutes. 2 

These heat tests, together with determination of 

* Known as the Worstall test. 

2 Browne's test has been adopted by the American Society for Testing 
Materials. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 39 

specific gravity, iodine number, saponification number, 
refractive index, etc., ordinarily determine the purity of 
China wood oil.^ The specific gravity is higher than in 
any oil save castor. 

China wood oil is largely used as a substitute for 
linseed oil in varnish, waterproofing for cement, lino- 
leum and paint, because of its rapid dr^-ing properties. 
It is used extensively in China for waterproofing fabrics, 
paper, for varnish, putty, lacquer and ink. The fatty 
acids are used as a substitute for shellac. 

Attempts have been made to introduce the tree into 
Cahfornia and Southern States in the United States, 
where it is said to thrive. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9406-. 9440 

SoHdif}"ing-point 2-3° C. 

Saponification number 190-197 

Iodine number 150-176 

Refractive index 20° C i .511-1 . 5207 

Viscosity (Redwood 60° F.) 850-1430 sees. 

[Jnsaponifiable matter up to .8 per cent 

Free fatty acids up to 5 . 30% (Oleic) 

Titer 37-1° C. 

Japanese Tung Oil, Japanese Wood Oil 

From fruits of tree grown in Japan. This oil does not 
gelatinize in the heat test like China wood oil, but 
becomes thicker. It is not as good drying oil as China 
wood oil, but is a cheaper substitute for it, and for Kn- 
seed. The cake is poisonous, but is said to lose its 

1 Often the heat tests are used alone to detennine purity, but this is 
not good practice, and often gives misleading results. 



40 COMMERCIAL OILS 

harmful properties when hot pressed. Not much of 

this oil is exported. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9330-.9400 

Saponification number 185-197 

Iodine number 149-161 

Refractive index 25°C i. 5034-1 . 5099 

The presence of this oil in China wood oil v/ould be 

detected by the heat tests given under China wood oil. 

Candle Nut Oil, Lumbang Oil 

From the seeds of a tree widely distributed through- 
out the tropics, Pacific Islands, Florida, Brazil, West 
Indies, Africa, India, China. Cultivated in Hawaii 
and the PhiHppines. It is used there for soap, paints 
and varnish. Seeds contain over 60 per cent of oil. 

The oil cannot be used for edible purposes on account 
of its purging properties. Used to some extent in 
paints or varnishes on account of its drying properties, 
which, however, are not so good as linseed. Linseed 
oil may be adulterated with it. Also used in soap, 
especially for soft soaps. The natives use it as a burning 
oil, as its name indicates. Experiments show that it 
may have good value as a varnish oil. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 920-.930 

Saponification number 1 91-195 

Iodine number 158-165 

Unsaponifiable matter up to o . 53% 

Bromides (fatty acids) 11-12% 

Refractive index 25° C i .465-1 .475 

Titer 17-18° C. 



CALIFORNIA COLLEGf 

of PHARMACY 

VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 41 

Stillingia Oil, Tallow Seed Oil 

Obtained from seeds of the same tree from which 
vegetable tallow is obtained in China. 

It has drying properties and is used as adulterant 
for China wood oil. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 939-. 946 

Saponification number 203-210 

Iodine number 145-160 

Titer test 12.2° C. 

Hemp Seed Oil 

Hemp is cultivated in Europe, North America, India, 
Japan, China and Manchuria. Used as paint o'l, in 
varnishes, soft soaps, and for edible purposes. Oriental 
hemp seed comes mainly from Manchuria. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 925-. 931 

Saponification number 190-193 

Iodine number 140-166 

Titer 15.6-16.6° C. 

Solidify ing-point thickens at — 15° C. 

solidifies at — 27° C. 

Hemp seed oil has good drying properties and it would 
seem that it should have a future in this use. Not a 
great deal has been imported from China or Japan. 
The oil is dark green as a rule, and rather cloudy and 
with some sediment. Acids are low, i to 2 per cent. 
Iodine number runs above 160. Unsaponifiable matter 
.5 to .7 per cent. Titer around 10° C, saponification 



42 COMMERCIAL OILS 

number 193. Refining loss for 1.2 per cent acid oil, 
is 8.5 per cent, giving a yellow oil with a tinge of green. 
On heating the crude oil becomes somewhat Ughter in 
color. 

Walnut Oil 

From common walnuts. Nuts are kept several 
months before pressing, as fresh nuts give a turbid 
oil. Nuts contain up to 65 per cent oil. Cold-pressed 
oil is nearly colorless. The oil has good drying proper- 
ties and is used in special grades of paints for artists' 
use. Such paints are less liable to crack than linseed 
oil paints. Walnut oil is generally high priced and may 
be adulterated by linseed, poppy, etc. High acid oil 
is unsuitable for paints and is used for soft soap. Good 
grade oil is used in Europe for edible purposes. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9256-. 9265 

Saponification number 192-197 

Iodine number 143-151 

Solidifying-point thickens at — 12° C. 

solidifies at -27° C. 

Viscosity at 70° F. (Redwood) 232 sec. 

Soya Bean Oil (Soja bean. Soy bean, bean, Chinese bean 
oil) 

Obtained from several plants native in China, Man- 
churia, Japan, Formosa, Korea, Indo-China. Oil and 
cake have been used for edible purposes in these coun- 
tries for thousands of years. 

The beans average as follows in composition: 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 43 

Per Cent 

Oil i8 

Water lo 

Albuminoids 40 

Carbohydrates 22 

Crude fiber 5. 

Ash 5 

Some varieties contain nearly 23 per cent oil. The 
pressed cake is specially valuable as a cattle food on 
account of the high content of albuminoids (or proteids). 
It has been found that the milk from cows fed with 
soya bean cake is richer in butter fat. The cake is also 
used largely for human food, and there are a number of 
different ways of preparing it. Certain fermented liquors 
are also made from it. The extracted meal is only 
used for fertilizer, although it has been used in cattle 
foods. 

Crude native processes of expression yield up to 
13 per cent of oil, while some modern mills only obtain 
10 per cent. Further amounts are obtained by an ex- 
traction with solvents. Many mills use extraction by 
solvents as the only process, naphtha being most com- 
monly used. 

The expressed oil from sound beans is low in acid. 
Higher acid oil may be refined in a similar way to 
cottonseed oil. For edible purposes the oil is bleached 
with fuller's earth, for technical purposes by chemicals. 

The oil is used for soap making chiefly. It makes a 
softer soap than cottonseed. Good grades of oil are 
also used for edible purposes. A considerable quantity 
goes into the paint and varnish trade. Soya bean is 
considerably slower in drying than Unseed. 



44 COMMERCIAL OILS 

It is considerably used in boiled oils for paints. 
Tungate and cobalt driers are said to be most suitable 
for soya bean oil. Varnishes of soya bean oil do not 
give good skins. 

For paint oil a sample should stand the following 
tests: (i) It should become pale on heating to 500° F. 
and remain so. (2) When blown with dry air for 
five to seven hours the specific gravity should be 
.960 or more. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 922-. 928 

Saponification number 190-194 

Iodine number 1 14-143 

Solidifying-point — 15 to —8° C. 

Titer 21° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter .... less than i per cent 

Grades for soya bean oil suggested by the New York 
Produce Exchange, April 15, 19 18, are as follows: 

SOYA BEAN OIL 

Sec. 6. — Fair average quality crude shall be oil obtained from the 
soya bean by pressure, not extraction, and shall be fair average quality 
of the season, provided, however, that the free fatty acids shall not 
exceed 2 per cent (calculated as oleic acid), nor moisture and impurities 
one-half of i per cent. 

Sec. 7. — Prime crude soya bean oil shall be free from water and set- 
tlings, and «^hall refine to a color not deeper than 35 yellow and 9 red, 
and ^\'ith a loss not to exceed 5 per cent with the use of caustic soda. If 
not prime, the buyer may reject. 

Sec. 8. — Crude soya bean oil, sold "basis 7 per cent refining loss," 
shall be free from water and settlings, and refine to a color not deeper 
than 35 yellow and ii red and with a loss not to exceed 7 per cent with 
the use of caustic soda; provided that any oil that refines with a greater 
loss than 7 per cent shall not be rejected, but price shall be adjusted as 
per rule 7, section i. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



215 



Sec. 9. — Extracted soya bean oil shall be sold on sample or guarantee 
with the designation of the country of origin. 

The Interstate Cottonseed Crushers Association rules 
are as follows: 

SOYA BEAN OIL— Grades 

Rule 25. Section i. — Prime Soya Bean Oil shall be pressed, and not 
extracted from Soya Beans, free from water and impurities, and shall 
refine with a color not to exceed 35 yellow and 9 red, and with a loss not 
to exceed 5% with the use of Caustic Soda by methods adopted by the 
Chemists' Committee to which it is referred. Provided that any oil 
that refines with a greater loss than 5% shall not be rejected but shall 
be reduced in price by a corresponding per cent in the contract price of 
the oil. 

Sec. 2. — Crude Soya Bean Oil sold basis 7% refining loss, shall be 
pressed and not extracted from Soya Beans and shall be free from water 
and impurities and refine with a color not to exceed 35 yellow and 11 red, 
and with a loss not to exceed 7% with the use of caustic soda by methods 
adopted by the Chemists' Committee to which it is referred. Provided 
that any oil that refines with a greater loss than 7% shall not be rejected 
but shall be reduced in price by a corresponding per cent in the contract 
price of the oil. 

Most of the soya bean received from the Orient is 
low in free fatty acids, less than 2 per cent. The 
extracted oil contains generally less than 0.5 per cent 
acids. The latter oil is yellow, while the pressed oil 
is more of a brownish color. 

The following table shows the character of oils im- 
ported at Seattle: 

FREE FATTY ACIDS 



Pressed Oil. 


Under 

1% 


1-2% 


2-4% 


4-6% 


January- June, 1918. 


72 1 
76 

ICO 


21 
10 


7 
4 





June-August, 1918 

Extracted Oil. 
January- August, 191 8 


10 







72% of samples analyzed contained under 1% free fatty acids, and so on. 



46 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



Averages of a number of determinations on Seattle 
imported oil are as follows: 




Extract-d Oil. 



Specific gravity ati5.5°C 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 

Unsaponifiable matter, per cent , 

Titer, deg. C 

Refining loss, per cent 

Solvent left in oil, per cent 



.9248 
193-5 
131-9 
0.66 
16.3 

3-5 
i.o 



Pressed oil passed the heat test described above. ^ 
Soya bean oil is imported in the largest quantity of any 
individual oil. Up to the present time it has been sold 
as f.a.q. (fair average quaUty).^ Several proposals have 
been made lately tending towards estabUshment of 
grades, as above mentioned. 

Poppy Seed Oil 

From poppy plant. Grown largely in India, Egypt, 
Persia, Asia Minor, Russia, France. Also Manchuria, 
but latter oil is low quahty. It is an important oil in 
Europe. 

Used as edible oil, also as adulterant of olive oil, 
for fine artist's paints. (See walnut oil.) 

Commercial oil generally contains accidental admix- 
ture with sesame. The cold-pressed oil is the grade 
known as " white " oil, while hot pressing gives the 
" red " grade. 

' P. 44. 

2 This means fair average quality of the season's production for any- 
given district. As a matter of fact, just what this fair average quality 
is, would be a very difficult matter to determine. It is a very poor 
way to grade oil. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 47 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 924-. 927 

Saponification number 189-197 

Iodine number I37~i57 

(Low values due to mixture of sesame.) 

Solidif^-ing-point — 18° C. 

Titer 15-16° C. 

Sunflower Oil 

Used extensively in Europe. Cultivated in Russia, 
Hungary, India, China. Seeds contain up to 53 per 
cent oil. It is a slow drying oil, but is used neverthe- 
less in some varnishes : also for soap, and edible purposes. 

Characteristics 

Specific gra\'ity at 15.5° C .924-. 926 

Saponification number 188-194 

Iodine number 1 19-135 

Solidifying-point - 16 to — 18.5° C. 

Com Oil 

From the germs of corn, separated in making of starch 
and glucose, and in alcohol distilleries. The germs a.re 
separated from the starch and pressed. The edible 
oil is refined and deodorized by superheated steam. 
If it stands in contact with albuminoid matter, it 
undergoes fermentation \yiih resultant high acids and 
dark color, so that it has to be bleached for fight soaps. 
The crude oil can be identified by a taste similar to 
corn meal. It is a semi-drying oil, ^^'ith better drying 
properties than cottonseed. Used for salad oil, often 
mLxed with cottonseed or other edible oils. Also in 
manufacture of margarin and compound lard, and for 



48 COMMERCIAL OILS 

baking use. Oil not fit for edible use is used for soft 
soap. It is not fitted for hard soap. It is not suitable 
for paints or lubrication, although it is sometimes used 
for paint. Also used in rubber substitute. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 921-.928 

Saponification number 189-192 

Iodine number 121-131 

Solidifying-point — 10 to —36° C. 

Stearin deposits at ordinary temperature on standing. 

Unsaponifiable matter i . 4-2 . 3% 

Titer 19° C. 

Cottonseed Oil 

From seeds of the cotton plant in United States, 
Egypt, India, Brazil, Peru, Russia, W. Africa. 

The seed is crushed with or without removing husk, 
depending on whether fiber adheres or not. Whole 
seeds yield from 16 to 24 per cent oil, kernels alone yield 
from 34 to 39 per cent. In Europe seeds are usually 
crushed whole, that is, husks and kernel together. In 
the United States the seed is usually decorticated. 
Husks remaining in the cake are not harmful to cattle, 
but fiber adhering causes stomach troubles. Cake 
averages about 10 per cent oil. 

Cottonseed cake is graded as follows by the Inter- 
state Cottonseed Crushers Association: 

COTTON SEED CAKE 

RuLK 9. Sec. I. — Cotton Seed Cake is a product of the Cotton Seed 
only, composed principally of the Kernel, with such portion of the fiber 
or Hull and Oil as may be left in the course of manufacture, and shall be 
graded and classed as follows: 

Sec. 2.— Choice Cotton Seed Cake must be bright yellow in color, 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 49 

sweet in odor, friable in texture, not burnt in cooking, free from excess of 
lint, and shall contain not less than either eight per cent of ammonia, 
or forty-seven per cent of combined protein and fat. 

Sec. 3. — Prime Cotton Seed Cakes must be of good color, yellowish, 
not brown or reddish, sweet in odor, firm but not flinty in texture, 
free from excess of lint, and shall contain not less than either seven and 
one-half per cent of ammonia, or forty-three per cent of combined pro- 
tein and fat. 

Sec. 4. — Sound Cotton Seed Cake must be of good color, not brown 
or reddish, sweet in odor, firm but not flinty in texture, free from excess 
of Unt, and shall contain not less than either seven per cent of ammonia 
of forty per cent of combined protein and fat. 

Sec. 5. — Cotton Seed Cake not coming up in analysis to that specified 
or implied by grade mentioned in contract shall be a good delivery if 
within one-fourth of one per cent of ammonia content, or one and one- 
quarter per cent of combined protein and fat, if sold in this way, but the 
settlement price shall be reduced at the rate of one-eighth of the contract 
price for each per cent of ammonia, or proportionately for fractions 
thereof of deficiency. But when sold for export the basis of contract 
shall be protein and fat combined, and the settlement price shall be 
reduced at the rate of -^ or ^, as the case may be, of the contract price 
for each one per cent of combined protein and fat, or fraction thereof, 
deficiency. 

Where Cake is sold on sample, to be a good delivery it must reason- 
ably conform to the sale sample in color and texture and analysis. 

Sec. 6. — On contracts for Cotton Seed Cake, either loose or in sacks, 
shipment of i per cent more or less than the weights specified shall 
be taken as fulfillment of contract. 

Sec. 7. — No claim for deficiency of protein and fat combined, or of 
ammonia shall be made by buyers, unless the deficiency shall exceed 
one-half of one unit of protein and fat combined, or one-tenth of one 
unit of ammonia. 

Sec. 8. — Screened Cracked Cake shall be made from Cotton Seed 
Cake according to grade as provided and sold; shall be reasonably 
free from Meal, and be well prepared and screened in pieces ranging 
in size from that of a grain of corn to two inches in diameter, and shall 
be reasonably free from large pieces or slabs of Cake which cannot 
be fed to cattle without further preparation. 

The crude pressed oil takes up coloring matter from 
the kernel, and may be very dark, almost black in color, 



50 COMMERCIAL OILS 

depending on the freshness of the seed. Crude oil is 
graded by the Interstate Cottonseed Crushers Asso- 
ciation as follows: 

COTTON SEED OIL— Grades 

Rule 4. Sec. i. — Choice Crude Cotton Seed Oil must be made 
from sound decorticated Seed; must be sweet in flavor and odor, free 
from water and settlings, and shall produce, when properly refined, 
Choice Summer Yellow Oil at a loss in weight not exceeding six per cent. 

Sec. 2. — Prime Crude Cotton Seed Oil, must be made from sound 
decorticated Seed; must be sweet in flavor and odor, free from water 
and settlings, and must produce Prime Summer Yellow Oil with the 
use of caustic soda by the official methods adopted by the Chemists' 
Committee, with a loss in weight not exceeding nine per cent; Pro- 
vided, that any Oil that refines with a greater loss than nine per cent, 
but still makes Prime Summer Yellow Oil, shall not be rejected, but 
shall be reduced in price by a corresponding per cent of the contract 
price of the Oil. 

Sec. 3. Off Crude Cotton Seed Oil. — Oil neither Choice nor Prime 
shall be called "Off Oil." When Off Oil is sold by sample, any Oil 
tendered shall equal sample, but if it should refine at a loss exceeding 
the loss of the sample by not over five per cent, but otherwise equal, 
it is still a good tender at a reduced price in proportion to the excess loss. 

The buyer shall have the right to reject the Cil outright if it tests 
beyond five per cent refining loss as compared with the sale sample. 

Sec. 4. — Where claim is made for excess refining loss, the value of 
the excess Soap Stock, less any excess cost of handling such Oil, shall 
be taken into consideration in settlement by the parties at interest. 

Sec. 5. — Oil produced by Cold Presses or expeller process is tender- 
able on contracts for the above three grades when such product will 
refine within the requirements of this Rule, but when Cold Pressed Oil 
is intended to be delivered it must be so stated at time of sale. 

Crude oil up to i per cent free fatty acids is refined 
for butter oil. From i to 2 per cent acids in the crude, 
produce prime yellow oil when refined. Above 2 per 
cent acid oil is difficult to decolorize, and is not suitable 
for edible purposes. 

The crude oil is refined by treating with caustic 



VEGETABLE AND ANBLAL 61 

soda, which takes out most of the color, and the free 
fatty acids. The soap thus formed, which also contains 
mucilaginous matter, is called soap stock (or foots 
soap). The loss in weight which the crude oil under- 
goes in this refining is determined in the laboratory 
on samples, and is referred to in the above-quoted 
specifications as refining loss. The refining loss depends 
largely on the freshness of the crude oil, and usually 
runs from 7 to lo per cent. 

Refined oil is graded by the Interstate Association as 
follows: 

REFINED OIL— Gr-ades 

Rule 7. Sec 1. — Choice Summer Yellow Cotton Seed Oil must be 
sweet in flavor and odor, prime in color, clear and brilliant in appear- 
ance and free from moisture. 

Sec. 2. — Prime Summer Yellow Cotton Seed Oil must be clear, sweet 
in flavor and odor, free from water and settlings, and of no deeper 
color than 35 yellow and 7.1 red on Lo\-ibond's equivalent color scale. 

The color scale examination shall be made as follows: The Oil is 
placed in a pure white four-ounce sample bottle; the depth of the 
Oil in the bottle shall be 5^ inches. The bottle shall be placed in a 
tintometer which is protected from an^- hght except reflected white light 
and the reading made at a temperature of about 70 degrees Fahrenheit 
or by such methods as may be recommended by the United States 
Bureau of Standards, pro\ided the same be approved by the Chemists' 
Committee and proxided that the color determined shall be expressed 
in Lo\-ibond terms. If the Oil is of deeper color than the glass standard 
35 yellow, 7.1 red, it shall not be classed as Prime. 

Sec 3. — Prime Winter Yellow Cotton Seed Oil must be brilliant, 
free from water and settUngs. sweet in flavor and odor, and of Prime 
Summer Yellow color as described above, and must stand limpid at a 
temperature of 32 degrees Fahrenheit for five hours. 

The cold test shall be made as follows: A regular four-ounce sample 
bottle shall be filled full of the Oil to be tested, a thermometer shall be 
inserted through the cork of the bottle, and hermetically sealed. The 
Oil shall then be heated slowly to a temperature not exceeding 80 
degrees Fahrenheit, and remain at that temperature not exceeding fif- 



52 COMMERCIAL OILS 

teen minutes. It shall then be chilled until it stands at 32 degrees 
Fahrenheit, at which point it must stand for five hours, and must 
be clear, brilliant and limpid at the expiration of that time. 

Sec. 4. — Good Off Summer Yellow Cotton Seed Oil may be off in 
flavor and / or odor, but must be prime in color and free from water 
and settlings and shall not contain more than I of i per cent of free 
fatty acid. 

Sec. 5. — Off Summer Yellow Cotton Seed Oil shall be free from 
water and settlings, off in flavor or odor, but of no deeper color than 
35 yellow and 12 red on Lovibond's color scale and shall not contain 
more than 5 of i per cent of free fatty acid. 

Sec. 6. — Reddish Off Summer Yellow Cotton Seed Oil, designated 
as such, may be of inferior flavor and odor and of no deeper color than 
35 yellow and 20 red on Lovibond's equivalent color scale, shall be 
free from water and settlings and shall not contain more than f of 
I per cent of free fatty acid. 

Sec. 7. — Bleachable Prime Summer Yellow Cotton Seed Oil must 
be clear, sweet in flavor and odor, free from water and settlings, and 
when bleached shall be of no deeper color than 20 yellow and 2.5 red, 
on Lovibond's equivalent color scale. The bleaching test shall be 
made by the official methods of the Chemists' Committee. The 
color examination shall be made in the manner provided for Summer 
YeUow. 

Sec. 8. — Prime Summer White Cotton Seed Oil must be clear, free 
from water and settlings, sweet in flavor and odor, and the color of 
the Oil shall not be darker than the combined standard glasses, 20 
yellow, 2.5 red, Lovibond's color scale. 

Sec. 9. — Prime Winter White Cotton Seed Oil must be brilliant, 
sweet in flavor and odor, free from water and settlings, and the color 
of the Oil shall not be darker than the combined standard glasses, 20 
yellow, 2.5 red, of Lovibond's color scale, and must stand the cold 
test as prescribed in Section 3. 

Oil for edible purposes is bleached by fuller's earth, for 
technical purposes by bleaching powder, acid, etc. De- 
odorizing is done by superheated steam. 

The grades established by the New York Produce 
Exchange are practically the same as those of the Inter- 
state Cottonseed Crushers Association, both for crude 
and refined oils. 



VEGETABLE AXD AXBL\L 53 

Soap stock is defined by the Crushers Association, 
as follows : 

SO.\P STOCK 

Rui£ & Sec. I. — Soap Stock mast be a product at the lefimng of 
Crude Cotton Seed OO, and all saks thereof, unkss otherwise agreed 
upon by seller and buyer, are made upon a basis of 50 per cent fatty add, 
not to fan belovr 40 per cent; if containing kss than 40 per cent fatty 
add, So^ Stock shall not be considered merrhantaMe and may 
be rejected; delivery to be made in merrhantahie parkagn or tank 
cais. 

Soap Stock shall be drawn for at 80 per cent of the invoice, unless 
analysis of the sdkr accompanies invoice; said analyse to be signed 
by the chemist; in which case draft shall be made for the amount indi- 
cated by the shipper's analysis. 

Sfc. 2. — Acidified Soap StoA. must be a product <rf completdy 
andified Soap Stock, thoroughly settled, and all saks thereof, unless 
otherwise agreed upoo. by buyer and seDer, are to be made upon a basis 
of 95 per cent total fatty add, and not to fall bdow 85 per cent; if con- 
taining kss than 85 per cent fatty acid, acidified Soap Stock shall not be 
considered merdiantabk as sudi, and may be rejected; deiivcnes to be 
made in mercfaantaUe packages or tank cais; when in tank cars, said 
cais nmst be equipped with steam coOs. 

Addified Soap Stoc± shall be diawn for at 90 per cent of the invoice 
unkss analysis of the sdkr accompanies invoice; said analysis to be 
signed by the diemist; in vrtuch case, draft shall be made for the amount 
indicated by the shipper's analyas. 

Winter or demargarinated oil has the stearine removed 
by standing cold, or filtering. Such oil will not deposit 
further stearine. Winter ofl has a lower titer test than 
summer oil. The stearine as obtained above is used in 
lard and butter substitutes, and margarine. 

The best grades of cottonseed oil are used for edible 
purposes. It gums and dries too much to be used as 
a lubricating oiL It has some use as a paint oil. and for 
other minor purposes. A good deal of cottonseed ofl 
is hardened by hydrogenation to form lard substitutes. 



54 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



etc. The oil treated with sulphur is used as rubber 
substitute. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 923-. 926 

Saponification number 191-196 

Iodine number 101-121 

Solidifying-point +4 to — 1° C. 

Titer 28-38° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 7-1 . 6% 

Cottonseed stearine: 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 918 

Saponification number 194-195 

Iodine number 89-104 

Solidifying-point 16-32° C. 

Titer 16-22 

Oriental cottonseed oil varies in color all the way 
from Hght yellow to nearly black, with acid content 
corresponding. Most lots are less than 5 per cent in 
free fatty acids. No definite grades have been estab- 
lished. The character of importations is shown by the 
following table: 

FREE FATTY ACIDS 





Below I % 


1-2% 


2-4% 


4-6% 


January- June, 191 8, per cent. . . 
June-August, 1918 


35 


13 


SO 
31 


2 
69 







Sesame OiL 

From seeds of sesame plant. Grown in China, 
Japan, Java, E. Indies, Egypt, Brazil, Mexico. Seeds 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 65 

contain 50 to 57 per cent oil, and yield 42 to 48 per cent. 
Press cakes used for cattle food, contain 8 to 10 per cent 
oil, 36 per cent proteids. 

Best grades are used for edible purposes, especially 
in manufacture of margarine. Several European coun- 
tries require a percentage of sesame oil to be mixed 
in butter substitutes to facilitate their detection if used 
to adulterate butter, as sesame is easily detected by the 
Baudouin color test. Also used in drugs, perfumes, 
soap and to adulterate almond and olive oil. It does 
not readily become rancid. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 923-. 926 

Saponification number 188-19 3 

Iodine number 103-117 

Solidifying-point —4. to —6° C. 

Titer 21-24 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 9-1 . 4% 

An average of a number of analyses of importations 
of sesame oil at Seattle is as follows: 

Free fatty acids i . 13% 

Saponification number 190 -3 

Iodine number 112. 2 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 7% 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9245 

Titer 17.4° C. 

Refining loss 6 . 5% 

Generally the Halphen test gives no reaction for 
cottonseed oil. Color is medium yellow. A small 
amount of stearine is present at ordinary temperatures. 



56 COMMERCIAL OILS 

A good majority of the importations contain less than 
I per cent acids. Not a great deal of this oil has been 
handled so far through Seattle. 

Rape Oil, Colza Oil 

From seeds of rape of which there are several varieties. 
Grown in Europe, India, Japan, China. 

The seed contains 2>3 to 45 per cent oil. Expressed 
seed makes good cattle food, extracted seed is used as 
fertilizer. 

Crude oil is dark colored and has a peculiar charac- 
teristic smell, sometimes compared to that of '' bed- 
bugs." It is refined by treatment with sulphuric acid, 
or by treatment with fuller's earth. Oil refined by sul- 
phuric acid may contain more free fatty acid than 
the original oil, free fatty acid being formed in the 
refining process. It is necessary very carefully to wash 
out the sulphuric acid used, if the oil is to be used for 
lubricating purposes. 

Rape oil is largely used in lubricants, both the 
refined oil and as blown oil.^ Its high viscosity and 
slight tendency to become rancid fit it especially for 
this purpose. It should be an expressed oil to be used 
for lubricant. An extracted oil would have a low flash- 
point due to the small amount of solvent left in the oil. 
Rape oil is exceeded in viscosity by only a few oils as 
castor, olive, etc., outside of the drying oils which, of 
course, would not be suitable for lubricants. 

It is used as an edible oil in Europe and India, as a» 
wool oil, burning oil, for soft soap, steel quenchinc: 
purposes and rubber substitute. 

*See p. 112. 



VEGET-\BLE AND ANIM.\L St 

As rape oil is generally high priced, it is sometimes 
adulterated with other cheaper oils, such as linseed, 
cottonseed, mineral and fish oils. Allied seeds such as 
ravison and mustard sometimes are mixed unavoid- 
ably with rape seed. Such seed yields an inferior grade 
of oil. Both of the above-mentioned oils have greater 
drying properties than rape and have a greater tendency 
to gum on exposure to air. 

Most oils which might be used as adulterants will 
either raise the iodine and saponification number, or 
lower the viscosity. Mineral oils would raise the 
unsaponifiable matter. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C .. . .913-. 917 

Saponification number 170-179 

Iodine number 97-106 

SoKdifying-point — 10 to — 16° C. 

Titer 12-20° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter 0.5-1. 5% 

Viscosity, 100° F 230-250 sec. Saybolt 

Viscosity, 100° C 60-70 sec. Saybolt 

Viscosity, 70° F 370-465 Redwood 

Oriental rape seed is chiefly grown in China. It may 
have ravison and mustard growing along with it. Two 
grades are produced: refined (sometimes called Shira- 
shime or " water white ") and crude or brown grade, 
sometimes called semi-refined. 

The refined grade generally contains less than \ per 
cent acids, often running below 0.2 per cent. The 
crude grade is darker in color and contains up to 2 and 
3 per cent acids. Other properties are: 



58 COMMERCIAL OILS 



Viscosity, Saybolt, at ioo° F 235-260 sees. 

Viscosity, Saybolt, at 100° C . . . . 60-70 sees. 

Flash-point open cup 500-625° F. 

Pour test (solidifying) — i to +7° F. 

Titer 15-20° C. 

Iodine number is most often between 100 and 102. 
Only 4 per cent of samples analyzed over a period of 
time had a higher iodine number than 104, and several 
of these were plainly adulterated. 

Saponification number is rarely under 170 or over 
176; with unsaponifiable up to 1.5 per cent. Specific 
gravity is generally between .914 and .915. Occa- 
sional samples give positive reaction in the Halphen 
test for cottonseed, and occasionally an oil will show 
admixture of mineral oil. As a rule the viscosity is 
higher than that called for by ordinary specifications 
for rape-seed oil. Also the pour test is liable to be 
higher. 

Presence of ravison- and mustard-seed oil is difiicult 
to detect with certainty. Both tend to raise the iodine 
number and to lower the viscosity. The specific 
gravity of either is somewhat higher than rape. 

Almond Oil 

From bitter almonds generally, sometimes from sweet 
almonds. In southern Europe, Morocco, Syria, Persia. 
Bitter almonds yield more oil than sweet almonds, 
but the oil is practically the same. 

Used in drugs and high-class soap. It is frequently 
adulterated. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 69 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C .9175-. 9195 

Saponification number 188-195 

Iodine number 93-101 

Solidifying-point — 10 to —21° C. 

Titer. 9-12° C. 



Peanut Oil (Arachis, Earthnut, Groundnut) 

Japan, China, Africa, United States, South America, 
W. Indies, E. Indies, India. 

Decorticated nuts undergo fermentation if shipped 
considerable distances, and as a result do not yield edible 
oils, but are used for soap, lubricating, wool oil, etc. 
Nuts from different localities vary in their yield of oil. 
Whole nuts contain around 35 per cent of oil, the ker- 
nels containing 40 to 60 per cent oil. Yield of oil is 
30 to 45 per cent of oil on a large scale. 

Expression is carried on in two or three stages, with 
increasing temperature. The first cold-pressed oil gives 
the best grade of oil for edible purposes. Oil of second 
expression is of lower quality, but may still be used for 
edible purposes, while that of third expression is used 
for soap. 

Press cakes are very good for cattle food, being higher 
in protein than any other oil cake. Cake from whole 
nuts contains ^7, to 35 per cent proteins; from kernels 
only, 45 to 52 per cent, with over i per cent phosphoric 
acid. Cakes from mouldy nuts are used as fertilizer. 
The cake is also used for human consumption in vary- 
ing forms. 

The oil may be bleached nearly water white by 
fuller's earth or charcoal. On standing cold, peanut 



60 COMMERCIAL OILS 

oil deposits a stearin. Oil from hot pressing will do 
this even at ordinary temperatures. 
I The chiet uses are for edible purposes (margarines) 
and soap. It is sometimes used to adulterate more 
expensive edible oils, such as olive oil, which it resembles 
very much in characteristics. It contains arachidic 
acid, which is comparatively easy of detection in mix- 
ture of other oils. Adulterations of peanut oil by other 
vegetable oils which might be used at present prices will 
generally raise the iodine number. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9165-.926 

Saponification number 186-196 

Iodine number. . . ,^ . . 83-105 

Solidifying-point ^l^-^. •; 0-10° C. 

Titer ...ii'iei oi;ui:; , 28-29° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter around . . o . 5% 

Oriental peanut oil is graded as edible (less than 2 
per cent acids), and off grade (over 2 per cent acids). 
Most of the importations are of edible grade. Some of 
the oil remains clear at ordinary temperatures, but 
most of it contains stearin. Color of edible grade light 
yellow, off grade darker. Refining loss on 1.5 per cent 
acid oil will run about 6 per cent, on 4 per cent acid 
oil nearly 9 per cent. The low acid oil bleaches with 
6 per cent fuller's earth to less than 20 yellow and 
3 red. 

The specific gravity will often run as low as .916. 
The iodine number generally does not go over 100, 
while the titer may be as high as 30° C. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL .61 

Other characteristics are: 
Viscosity at ioo° F., Saybolt, around 190 sees. 
Pour test, 33-34° C. 
Flash-point open cup about 600° F. 
Grades of peanut oil suggested by New York Produce 
Exchange April 15, 19 18, are as follows: 

PEANUT OIL 

Sec. 10. — Fair average quality, crude, shall be filtered, or well settled, 
and be obtained by pressure, not extraction. It shall be fair averLge 
quality of the season, provided, however, that the free fatty acids shall 
not exceed 2 per cent (calculated as oleic acid), nor moisture and impuri- 
ties one-half of one per cent. 

Sec. II. — Choice crude peanut oil must be sweet in flavor and odor 
free from water and settlings, and shall produce, when properly refined, 
choice yellow oil with a loss in weight not exceeding 3 per cent. If not 
choice buyer may reject. 

Sec. 12. — Prime crude peanut oil must be sweet in flavor and odor, 
and free from water and settlings, and must produce prime yellow oil 
with the use of caustic soda, with a loss in weight not exceeding 5 per 
cent; provided, that any oil that refines with a greater loss than 5 per 
cent, but still makes prime yellow oil, shall not be rejected, but price 
shall be adjusted as per rule 7i section i. 

Sec. 13. Basis Prime Crude Peanut Oil. — Crude peanut oil sold as 
"basis prime" cannot be rejected outright even if it does not produce 
prime summer yellow refined oil. In that case, however, in addition to 
allowance for excessive refining loss, if any, an allowance shall be given 
for deficiency in quality representing the difference in value between 
prime summer yellow refined oil and the quality produced by the crude 
oil delivered. 

Sec. 14. Crude peanut oil, when not sold on any of the preceding 
grades, but when sold by sample, or, in absence of sample, by description, 
must conform in quality to description or sample. 

If the refining loss does not exceed 3 per cent beyond that of sample or 
contract description, price may be adjusted under rule 7, section i. If 
the refining loss does exceed 3 per cent beyond that of sample or contract 
description, buyer may reject. 



62 COMMERCL\L OILS 



REFINED PEANUT OIL— Grades 

Sec. 15. — Choice peanut oil must be sweet in odor and flavor, prime 
in color, clear and brilliant in apf)earance, and free from moisture, 
and shaU not contain more than one-tenth of i per cent of free fatty 
acids. 

Sec. 16. — Prime j'ellow peanut oil must be clear, sweet in odor and 
flavor, free from water and settlings, and of no deeper color than 50 
yellow and 5 red on Lovibond's equivalent color scale, and shall not 
contain more than one-fifth of i per cent of free fatty acids. 

Sec. 17. — Good off yellow peanut oil may be off in flavor and odor, 
but must be prime in color and free from water and settlings, and shall 
not contain more than one-fourth of i per cent of free fatty acids. 

The following are the Interstate Crushers Association 
Grades : 

PEANUT OIL— Grades 

Rule 19. Sec. i. — Choice Crude Peanut Oil must be pressed and 
not extracted, from sound Peanuts, must be sweet in flavor and odor, 
free from water and settlings, and shall produce, when prof>erly refined, 
Choice Yellow Peanut Oil with a loss in weight not exceeding 3%. 

Ser. 2. — Prime Crude Peanut Oil must be pressed and not extracted 
from sound Peanuts, must be sweet in flavor and odor, free from water 
and setdings and must produce Prime Yellow Peanut Oil with the use 
of causric soda by the official method adopted by the Chemists' Com- 
mittee with a loss in weight not exceeding 5^; pro^^ded, that any Oil 
that refines with a greater loss than 5%, but still makes Prime Yellow 
Oil shall not be rejected, but shall be reduced in price by a corresponding 
per cent in the contract price of the Oil. 

Sec. 3. — Off Crude Peanut Oil, neitlier Choice nor Prime, shall be 
called "Off Oil." When Off Oil is sold by sample any Oil tendered 
shall equal sample but if it shall refine at a loss exceeding the loss of the 
sample by not over 3^. but otherwise equal it, it is still a good tender at 
a reduced price in proportion to the excess loss. The buyer shall have 
the right to reject the Oil outright if it tests beyond 3% refining loss as 
comp)ared with the sale sample. 

Sec. 4. — Where claim is made for excess refining loss, the value of the 
excess Soap Stock, less any excess cost of handling such Oil shall be taken 
into consideration in the settlement by the parties at interest. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



63 



REFINED PEANUT OIL— Gr.\des 

Rule 21. Sec. i. — Choice Peanut Oil must be sweet in odor and 
flavor, prime in color, clear and brilliant in appearance and free from 
moisture, and shall not contain more than one-tenth of one per cent of 
free fatty acid. 

Sec. 2. — Prime Yellow Peanut Oil must be clear, sweet in odor and 
flavor, free from water and settlings, and of no deeper color than fifty 
yellow and five red on Lovibond's equivalent color scale. 

The color scale examination shall be made as follows: The Oil is 
placed in a pure white four-ounce bottle; the depth of the Oil in the 
bottle shall be five and one-fourth inches; the bottle shall be placed 
in a tintometer which is protected from any light except reflected white 
light, and the reading made at a temperature of about 70 degree F., 
or by such method as may be recommended by the United States Bureau 
of Standards, provided the same be approved by the Chemists' Com- 
mittee, and provided that the color determined shall be expressed in 
Lovibond's terms. If the Oil is of deeper color than the combination 
standard of fifty yellow, five red, it shall not be classed as Prime, 

Sec. 3. — Good Off Yellow Peanut Oil may be off in flavor and odor 
but must be prime in color and free from water and settlings, and shall 
not contain more than one-fourth of one p>er cent of free fatty acids. 

Character of importations at Seattle is shown in the 
following table: 

FREE FATTY ACIDS 



25-.50 

Per 
Cent. 



.5-10 


1-2 


2-4 


4-6 


6-10 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


26 


IS 


5 


3 


3 


63 


30 


3 


2 


1 



Over 

10 Per 
Cent. 



Jan. to June, 191 8, 
per cent 48 

June to Aug., 19 18, 1 

per cent lunder i 





Water 


Insoluble Matter 




o-.S 
Per Cent. 


.5-1.0 
Per Cent. 


0-.2 
Per Cent. 


.2-5 

Per Cent. 


Jan. to June, 1018, per cent 

June to Aug., 1918, per cent. . . . 


91 
100 


9 


90 


10 

Under 0.5 
100 



64 COMMERCL\L OILS 

Importations of peanut oil are next in importance to 
soya at Seattle. Its use as an edible oil in the United 
States is fast increasing. 

Tea Seed Oil 

From the seeds of a shrub related to the tea plant 
(not from the tea plant cultivated for its leaves), 
expressed on large scale in China. Expressed oil contains 
saponin, which renders it dangerous for edible purposes, 
although it is so used in China. Extracted oil is free 
from saponin. Allied to this oil are Tsubaki oil and 
Sasanqua oil, Japanese oils which are used as hair oils 
and for lubricating delicate machinery. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 917-.927 

Solidifying-point — 5 to — 12° C. 

Saponification number 188-196 

Iodine number 89-94 

Importations of this oil have not been important as 
yet. 

Olive OU 

From the fruit of the olive tree. Western Asia, 
Southern Europe, Northern Africa, California, S. Africa, 
Australia. 

Ripe fruit contains 40 to 60 per cent oil. Fruits vary 
considerably in their yield of oil, some districts of 
California yielding much lower than these amounts, 
as low as 10 per cent. Best oil comes from fruit not 
quite ripe. Quality of oil varies considerably, depend- 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 65 

ing on care with which fruit is picked and handled, 
age of fruit, storage before pressing. 

Best grades of " virgin " oil are obtained from hand- 
picked fruits, by peeling and removing the kernels and 
then hght pressing. The second pressing cold will give 
edible oil of somewhat lower grade. Technical grades 
are made from later pressings hot, the " marc " (cor- 
responding to press cake) going through a number of 
treatments before the last oil is extracted by solvents, 
usually carbon bisulphide. 

The cake becomes rancid very rapidly, and is only 
used locally for cattle food. The extracted cake is 
used for fertilizer. 

The crude oil is washed with water and filtered, and 
then any stearine is allowed to settle out. Best grades 
will remain clear at io° C. The color varies from water 
white to yellow and green. Olive oil is valued largely 
on taste, which varies according to the district and 
treatment. Free fatty acids in good oil are less than 
0.5 per cent. 

The chief use is for edible purposes, as salad oil, etc. 
Sardines are largely put up in olive oil. Other uses for 
lower grade oils are for burning, soap, lubrication, wool 
oil, special soaps for textile uses, as for silk, cahco, 
wool, etc.., leather. Olive oil has a higher viscosity 
than rape, and less tendency to gum, hence is a very 
desirable lubricating oil. Some lower grades of oil have 
large amounts of free fatty acids. These are used for 
soap, wool oils, and in dyeing. 



66 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 91 5-. 920 

Saponification number 185-203 

Iodine number 77-95 

Solidifying-point 2-io°C. 

Viscosity 70° F. (Redwood) 312 sec. 

Unsaponifiable matter up to 2>'^% 

Titer 17-26° C. 

Olive oil is quite often adulterated, sometimes very 
cleverly. In order to detect adulteration by analysis, 
it is often necessary to know the district from which 
the oil originated, as oils from different districts vary 
considerably in their characteristics. 

Grades of the New York Produce Exchange for 
technical oil are as follows: 

OLIVE OIL 

Sec. 23. — Olive Oil for manufacturing purposes, commonly known as 
the commercial grade, shall not contain over 2 per cent of moisture 
and or sediment, and not exceed 7 per cent of free fatty acids. 

If sold as yellow, must be yellow or slightly green, and not red. 

If sold as green must be green in color and not turn brown when saponi- 
fied with the solution of 20 deg. Baume caustic soda in the proportion of 
8 CO. to 10 grams of oil, hot. 

Castor Oil 

From the beans of the castor plant. Grown in India, 
Java, China, Japan, Mexico, United States, Mediter- 
ranean, S. America. 

Beans contain 45 to 55 per cent oil and yield about 
40 per cent. 

Best quality of oil for medicinal purposes is obtained 
from the first cold pressing. Two later expressions are 
made which give technical grade of oil. The press 



VEGETABLE AXD .\XIM.\L 67 

cakes contain a poisonous alkaloid " ricine," which 
renders them unfit for use as cattle food, but they are 
used as fertilizer. Some castor is extracted by solvents 
after the last pressing, as the press cakes after final 
pressing still contain almost 8 per cent oil. Inferior 
seeds are also extracted instead of being pressed. 

Refining is done by steaming the oil. Albuminous 
matter is thereby coagulated and filtered out. Properly 
refined oil is very slow to turn rancid. The color varies from 
almost colorless to yellow. Some crude varieties are green. 
Stearine deposits on standing cold. Castor oil has the 
highest gravity and viscosity Of any fatty oil. It also 
differs from other oils in its solubihty in alcohol, and 
its insolubility in petroleum ether. These properties are 
made use of to detect adulterants in castor. Castor 
oil will not mix with mineral oil. If a third oil, however, 
is present as rape, lard, etc., a clear mixture of the three 
is obtained. 

Castor oil is used In medicine, for Turkey red oils 
used in dyeing, transparent soap, lubrication, leather 
industry, fly paper. Large amounts are used in internal 
lubrication of aeroplane engines. 

The British Pharmacopeia limits medicinal oil to 2 
per cent free fatty acids. 
United States Pharmacopeia specifications are: 

Specific gra\'ity 958-. 970 

Saponification number 177-187 

Iodine number 83-90 

Acid number not over 4.0^ 

Refractive index 40° C i .4695-1 .4730 

Soluble in 3.5 parts 90 per cent alcohol 
1 Free fatty acids, 2.0 per cent. 



68 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Turkey red oil is formed by treating castor with 
sulphuric acid, that is, it is a sulphonated oil. Similar 
products called olive and cottonseed Turkey red oils are 
made by treating these other oils. The treated oil is 
used in the preparation of calico before dyeing or 
printing with aUzarin colors. It is valued by the amount 
of fatty matter contained which varies from 40 to 
65 per cent. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 959-. 968 

Saponification number 177-187 

Iodine number 81-91 

Solidifying-point — 10 to — 18° C. 

Acetyl number 145-155 

Viscosity, 100° F., Saybolt 1400- 1430 sees. 

Soluble in all proportions in absolute alcohol. At 
15° C. one volume oil dissolves in two volumes of 90 
per cent alcohol. At 17.5° C. one volume dissolves in 
five volumes alcohol of 0.829 specific gravity.^ Turbidity 
shows presence of foreign oils. As little as ^ per cent 
of foreign oil may be thus detected. It is miscible in 
an equal volume of petroleum ether. Any excess of 
this amount is not miscible. 

The solubihty tests give a quick way of estimating 
adulterations. Any foreign oil will lower the specific 
gravity and viscosity of castor and would generally 
raise the iodine and saponification numbers. The acetyl 
number is a valuable characteristic also in determining 
the purity, as any other oil would lower the acetyl 
number. 

1 Sometimes called Finkener's test 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



69 



Oriental castor oil contains from i to 6 per cent or 
more free fatty acids. Color varies from very light 
yellow to green. Specific gravity from .960 to .965. 
A considerable portion of it shows adulteration with 
some other oil, but this is generally less than 5 per cent 
and must be considered accidental. 

The viscosity of Oriental castor oils at 15° C. varies: 
from 6500 to 74CX) seconds on the Saybolt instrument, 
at 100° C. from 97 to 99 seconds. The lower viscosities 
are those of oils containing around 7 or 8 per cent 
free fatty acids and up to 5 per cent of other oils than 
castor. Flash-points (open cup) range from 495° to 
540° F., the lower one being high acid oils. All samples 
tested have had a pour test of some degrees below 
0° F. 

The character of importations at Seattle is seen from 
the following tables: 



FREE FATTY ACIDS 



January to June, 1918, per cent. 
June to August, 191 8, per cent. 



1-2 
Per Cent. 



29 
2Z 



2-4 
Per Cent. 



48 
55 



4-6 
Per Cent. 



10 
19 



6-10 
Per Cent. 



13 
3 



WATER 



0-.5% 


.5-1.0% 


1-2% 


59% 


35% 


6% 



About 90 per cent of the oil is clear, balance turbid or 
cloudy, irrespective of whether it contains water or not. 



70 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Castor beans are mostly cultivated in a small way in 
China and Manchuria, and the beans may become 
admixed with other beans. The refined grade undergoes 
a partial purification. It is generally handled in small 
batches in the mills. 

United States Army Signal Corps Specification No. 
3500-A for Castor Oil for Aircraft Engine Lubrication, 
is as follows: 

General. 

I. This specification is drawn to cover the requirements of the Signal 
Corps in all purchases of castor oil for rotary engine lubrication. The 
oil must be a high-grade vegetable castor oil suitable for this purpose. 
Both cold-pressed vegetable castor oil and hot-pressed vegetable castor 
oil which has been refined so that it will meet the requirements of this 
specification may be submitted for purchase. 

2. The castor oil must be free from adulteration, other oils, suspended 
matter, grit and water. 

Physical Properties and Tests. 

3. The castor oil must meet the following requirements: 

4. Color. — When observed in a 4-oz. sample bottle, the castor oil must 
be colorless or nearly so, transparent, and without fluorescence. 

5. Specific Gravity. — The castor oil must have a specific gravity of 
0.950 to 0.968 at 60 deg. F. (Baume gravity must be from 16.05 to 14.70 
at 60 deg. F.). 

6. Solubility. — The castor oil must be completely soluble in four (4) 
volumes of ninety (90) per cent alcohol (specific gravity 0.834 at 60 deg. 
F.). This test shall be made on a 2 c.c. sample. 

7. Acid Niifnber. — It must not require more than three (3) milligrams 
of potassium hydroxide (KOH) or 2.14 milligrams of sodium hydroxide 
(NaOH) to neutralize one (i) gram of oil. This is equivalent to 1.5 
per cent oleic acid. 

8. The test for acidity shall be made on samples weighing five (5) to 
ten (10) grams. Samples shall be heated for one-half (\) hour with fifty 

(50) c.c. of neutral alcohol and then titrated with fifth normal / — J 

sodium or potassium hydroxide, using phenolphthalein as an indicator. 



\^GETABLE .\XD AXBIAL 71 

9. Iodine X umber. —{Ua^nus method). The iodine number must be 
between So and 90. Samples used for this test shall weigh 0.2 to 0.25 
gram and shall be treated for one (i) hour. 

10. Saponificaiion Number. — The saponification number must be 
between 176 and 187. 

11. This t^t shall be made on samples weighing two (2) to three (3) 

grams. Samples shall be saponified with half normal ( — ] alcoholic 
sodium or potassium hydroxide for one (i) hour and shaken at least five 
(5) times. Titrate with fifth normal l—\ acid, using phenolphthalein 

as an indicator. 

12. UtKaponifiabU Matter. — The unsaponifiable matter must not 
exceed one (i) per cent Samples used for this test shall weigh five (5) 
to ten (10) grams. 

13. Rosin. — (Liebennan-Storch test). The castor oil must not give a 
reaction for either rosin or rosin oiL 

14. Cotton Seed Oil. — (Halphen test). The castor oil must not give 
a reaction for cotton seed oil 

15. This test shall be made on samples measuring one (i) to three (3) 
c.c. Dissolve the oil in an equal volume of amyl alcohol, and then add 
a volume of Halphen reagent (i per cent solution of sulphur in carbon 
bisulphide) equal to the volume of oil used. 

16. Viscosity. — The castor oil when tested in a Saybolt Universal 
Mscosimeter must have a viscosity of not less than 450 seconds at 130 
d^. F. and 95 seconds at 212 deg. F. 

17. Flash-point. — The flash-point must not be less than 450 deg. F. 
in a Cleveland open flash cup. 

18. Cold Test. — The castor oil, in a 4-oz. sample bottle one-quarter 
(}) full, must not congeal at a temperature of zero deg. F. The ther- 
mometer bulb shall be inserted in the oil during the test. 

Samplixg, Analysis .and Inspection 

19. The inspector shall take a sufficient number of samples to fairly 
represent each lot of oil submitted. In case of doubt as to the proper 
method of sampling, instructions maj' be obtained from the Equipment 
DiA-ision Laboratory of the Signal Corps. 

20. Indi\-idual test samples shall not be smaller than eight (8) fluid 
ounces. Samples on which check analyses are to be made, as pro- 
\'ided in paragraph 22, shall not be smaller than sixteen (16) fluid 
ounces. 

21. The Seller shall furnish, at his own expense, the necessarj' samples 



72 COMMERCIAL OILS 

and make the analyses and tests required by this specification. The 
Seller shall furnish a report of all tests and analyses to the inspector. 

22. As a check upon the analyses made by the Seller, the inspector 
shall select a certain number of samples and send them to the Equipment 
Division Laboratory for test. 

23. WTien a check analysis is required the inspector shall divide one 
of the samples provided for in paragraph 20 into two (2) equal parts. 
One part shall be the Seller's sample and the other part shall be sent to 
the Equipment Division Laboratory, Bureau of Standards, Washington, 
D. C. The inspector shall mark such samples clearly with the name 
and address of the Seller, the date, the Signal Corps order number and 
any additional information helpful in identifying the lot of oil which the 
sample represents. Check analyses shall be made without cost to the 
Seller. 

Communications regarding all technical matters pertaining to specifica- 
tions should be addressed to the Specification Section, Signal Corps, U. S. 
Army, Washington, D. C. 

Animal Oils 

Divided into two classes: 
(i) Marine animal oils. 
(2) Terrestrial animal oils. 
The marine animal oils absorb oxygen and correspond 
to the vegetable drying oils ; while terrestrial animal oils 
are mostly non-drying. 

Marine animal oils are further subdivided into: 
(a) Fish. 
{h) Liver oils. 
{c) Blubber oils. 

Fish Oils 

Obtained from all parts of common fish. The bodies 
of fish yielding liver oil contain only small amounts of 
oil as a rule, while the livers of the fish from which body 
oil is obtained yield only small amounts of liver oil. 

Fish oils are characterized by a special odor. They 
are usually darker colored than vegetable oil. The 



w ^rtARMACY 

VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 73 

color and smell depend largely on the condition of the 
fish as regards putrefaction, before the oil is obtained. 
The oil is usually obtained by rendering with water 
or steam and separating the oil. Many attempts have 
been made to deodorize fish oils. It is stated that at 
present fish oils are being used in Scandinavian coun- 
tries for edible purposes. 

The residue, after extraction of the oil, is a valuable 
fertilizer. It is dried and ground and sold as fish scrap 
or fish waste. It is also used in poultry food. 

On standing most fish oils deposit stearine. They 
absorb oxygen from the air and " dry " like Unseed 
oil, the skin formed being somewhat sticky. They 
are sometimes used to adulterate Unseed and other 
drying oils, but the admixture of fish can be detected 
by special methods of examination. Most of the fish 
oils are used in the leather industry. 

Menhaden Oil 

Menhaden is caught off the Atlantic Coast of the 
United States from April till November. The fish 
have been used by farmers for a long time as fertilizer. 
Now the oil is recovered by rendering or pressing and 
the waste is dried and sold as fertilizer. 

Oil from fresh fish is Hght colored, but the longer the 
fish are kept before obtaining the oil, the darker will be 
the color of the oil. Four grades are: A, extra pale; 
B, pale; C, brown; D, dark brown. The southern 
oil contains more stearine, which separates out on 
standing cold. Winter oils are obtained by standing 
for some time in the cold, and then separating the 
deposited stearine. 



74 COMMERCIAL OILS 

The oil is refined by filtering, giving strained oil, and 
also by bleaching with fuller's earth, etc., giving bleached 
oils, yellow and white. 

It is used principally in currying leather, for making 
sod oil,i in soap making, tempering steel, rubber sub- 
stitute, waterproofing, in paint oils, hnoleum, etc. 
Sometimes cod liver oil is adulterated with it. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 928-. 931 

Saponification number 188-193 

Iodine number 139-193 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 6-2 . 1% 

Solidifying-point — 4° C. 

Japanese Sardine Oil, or Fish Oil 

Obtained in Japan principally from a fish belonging 
to the sardine family, but is also Uable to have other 
fish oils admixed. 

The crude oil contains 30 per cent stearine. This is 
sold as " fish tallow " and is used in currying leather. 

Color ranges from light yellow to very dark red. 
The oil is used in the soap and leather industries. 

Owing to other fish oils being admixed, the character- 
istics of this oil as it comes on the market, vary widely. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 915-.934 

Saponification number 179-196 

Iodine number 104-187 

Unsaponifiable matter 5-2 . 3 

Titer 28° C. 

^Seep. 118. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



75 



Japanese oil is graded thus: 

No. I, up to 6 per cent free fatty acids. 

No. 2, 6 to 8 per cent. 

No. 3, over 8 per cent. 

The character of these grades is shown by the following 
averages of a number of samples analyzed in the author's 
laboratory: 



No. I. 



No. 2. 



No. 3. 



Free fatty acids, per cent. . . . 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 

Unsaponifiable matter, % . . . 
Specific gravity at 15.5° C . 

Titer, deg. C 

Color 

Stearine at 60° F 



5 
190 
162 

o 



45 
.9269 

25-3 

Brown 

Small 



7.0 
188 
145 
0.4 
.9247 
22.8 
Reddish br'n 
Small 



8-5 
190 

94 
0.65 

.9283 
24.9 
Darker brown 
Small 



Sardine Oil 

From heads and other waste of sardines in canning, 
in Spain and France. 

Used in leather and soap industries. 

Salmon Oil 

A by-product of salmon canning on the Pacific Coast, 
Fish waste from canneries is gathered and brought to 
plants, where the oil is obtained, the refuse being dried 
and used as fertilizer. Some oil is extracted by gaso- 
line. This gives a very dark colored oil, which so far 
has not been bleached. Several per cent of the solvent 
is generally left in the oil. 

The color ranges from yellow to dark brown, depending 
on freshness of oil. 

It is used in leather and soap. 



76 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



This oil is graded as follows: 

No. I, up to 5 per cent free fatty acids. 
No. 2, from 5 to 7 per cent free fatty acids. 
No. 3, from 7 to 15 per cent free fatty acids. 

A typical analysis of No. i grade is as follows: 

Free fatty acids 3 . 1% 

Saponification number 185 

Iodine number 133 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 76% 

Titer 20° C. 

Color Reddish-brown 

Stearine at 60° F None 

Herring Oil 

From Japan, Scandinavia, etc. 

Japanese oils deposit stearine. Color ranges from 
yellow to dark brown. Used in leather industry. 
Japanese herring oil is graded as follows : 
No. I, up to 6 per cent free fatty acids. 
No. 2, 6 to 8 per cent free fatty acids. 
No 3, over 8 per cent. 
Characteristics are shown by the following table of 
average analyses made in author's laboratory: 





No. I. 


No. 2. 


No. 3. 


Free fatty acids, per cent. . . . 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 


5-5 
187 
150 
0.43 
24.7 
Small 
Red 


7.5 
189 

155 
0.87 

243 

Small 

Red-brown 


II. 7 
187 


Unsaponifiable matter per cent 
Titer, deg. C 


0.84 
25.2 

Small 


Stearine 


Color 


Dark-Red 







VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 77 

Japanese Fish Oil 

Common grade contains 12 to 14 per cent acids. 
This is a name for fish oils imported from Japan which 
may comprise fish oils which do not fit in any other 
classification. Consequently the characteristics may 
vary considerably. So-called 5-grade contains above 
14 per cent acid. 

The following is an analysis of a composite sample 
representing a number of shipments sampled at Seattle: 

Free fatty acids 8 . 2% 

Saponification number 189 

Iodine number 155 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 73% 

Titer 24.5° C. 

Color Brown 

Stearine and foots Considerable 

Liver Oils 

Obtained from livers of certain fish as whiting, trout, 
sawfish, Hng, tunny, ray, hake, eel, cod, shark, dog- 
fish, skate and haddock. As a rule the bodies of these 
fish do not yield oil in any amount. Liver oils in 
general have larger amounts of unsaponifiable matter 
(cholesterol) than fish body oils. 

Cod Liver Oil 

From livers of the cod, Newfoundland, Norway, 
Japan, Pacific Coast. 

Best medicinal oil is prepared from fresh livers, and 
kept away from action of light and air. The fivers 
decompose easily, and great care is necessary to produce 
best grades. Color varies from pale yellow to brown. 



78 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



Lower grades of oil are used in the leather industry, 
but a low acid oil is desirable even here. 

The oil settles out stearine on standing. Oils free from 
stearine are called raked oils. Dark tank cod oil from 
Newfoundland contains around 14 per cent acids. 

For characteristics see page 80. 

The British Pharmacopoeia limits acids to 1.25 per 
cent. The United States Pharmacopoeia says the oil 
shall be " only slightly acid to htmus paper." The 
complete specifications are as follows : 



Specific gravity 

Saponification number. 

Iodine number 

Color 

Odor and taste 

Unsaponifiable matter. 
Exposed 3 hrs. to 0° C . 



U. S. Pharm. 



9i8-.922at 25° C, 

180-190 

140-180 

Pale yellow 

Slightly fishy not rancid 



British Pharm. 



.920-. 930 
179-192 

155-173 
Pale yellow 
Same. 

Not over 1.5% 
No solid fat separating 



Most of the Japanese cod oil imported at Seattle 
is low acid oil, much of it containing less than 2 per cent 
acids. It is graded as No. i, with less than 5 per cent 
acids, No. 2 from 5 to 7 per cent. 

Average of a number of analyses of No. i grade are 
as follows: 

Free fatty acids 4 . 4% 

Saponification number 177 

Iodine number 151 

Unsaponifiable matter i . 18% 

Titer 20.9° C. 

Stearine Small 

Color Yellow-brown 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



79 



Shark Liver Oil 

Iceland, Japan, Pacific Coast. 

Used in leather, oiled cloth, rubber substitute, often 
in cod liver oil as adulterant. 

For characteristics see page 80. 

Character of Seattle imports of Japanese No. i 
shark oil is as follows: 

57% contains less than 1% free fatty adds. 
20% contains from i to 2% free fatty acids. 
23% contains from 2 to 4% free fatty acids. 

Th^ oil is graded as No. i, up to 5 per cent acids; 
No. 2 from 5 to 7 per cent acids. Most of the oil on 
this market is of No. i grade, and very low in acids. 
Average analyses of this grade are as follows: 



Free fatty acids per cent 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 

Unsaponifiable matter per cent 

Titer, deg. C 

Stearine at 60° F 

Color 



1.9 


2.5 


170 


169 


130 


132 


1.72 


2-95 


232 


22.8 


Small 


None 


Yellow 


Reddish-yellow 



Dogfish Liver Oil 

Washington, British Columbia, and Oregon Coasts. 
Sometimes mixed with cod oil. Bodies of fish are dried 
and sold as fertilizer, dogfish scrap. It is high in nitro- 
gen. Attempts have been made lately to use the dog- 
fish for food, under the name of grayfish. Its preserva- 
tion is difficult. 

Character of oil produced is shown by the following: 



80 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



FREE FATTY ACIDS 






Under i 
Per Cent. 


1-2 

Per Cent. 


6-8 
Per Cent. 


June to August, 191 8, per cent 


50 


25 


25 



The oil is graded as No. i, under 2 per cent acids; 
No. 2, from 2 to 5 per cent acids. Analyses of a number 
of samples of No. i and No. 2 grades are as follows: 



Free fatty acids per cent 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 

Unsaponifiable matter per cent. 

Titer, deg. C 

Stearine at 60° F 

Color 




Livers of coalfish, haddock, whiting, hake, skate and 
hng are also used for oil. Often mixed with cod oil. 
Presence of these in cod oil cannot be detected. 



Characteristics of Liver Oils 
As given by standard text. 



Cod. 



Shark. 



Dogfish. 



Specific gravity at 15 . 5°C. 
Saponification number . . . 

Iodine number 

Solidifying-point, deg. C. . 

Titer, deg. C 

Unsaponifiable matter % . 



.922-. 941 
168-190 
135-198 

o to — 10 

13- 24 
.6-4.6 



,910-. 928 
140-197 
III-IS5 



1.0-22.0 



91 8-. 930 

170-225 

126-154 



1.0-9.0 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



&1 



Blubber Oils 

Obtained from the blubber (or fat) cf number of marine 
animals, including seal, whale, turtle, dugong, dolphin, 
porpoise and brown fish. Last three, as well as spenn 
whale oil, contain spermaceti. 

Whale Oil 

A number of species of whale yield oil. The whales 
nowadays are generally brought to a '' whaUng station " 
where the carcass is worked up. The character of the 
oil obtained depends on the time that it takes the whale 
to reach the station, and on the temperature of the water. 

The >'ield of various whales is given as follows by 
Lewkowitsch : 



Right 

Right 

Bowhead 

Humpback .... 
Humpback .... 

Finback 

Finback 

Sulphur bottom 



Pacific. . 
Atlantic. 



Pacific. . 
Atlantic. 
Pacific. . 
Atlantic. 



Yield in Gallons. 



750-7600 
750-4500 
900-7600 
300-3400 
300-3100 
300-2100 
600-1900 
1500 



The oil is extracted by rendering and pressing. The 
meat is dried and sold as fertilizer. The bones are 
ground and also sold as fertilizer. 

Whale meat, when fresh, is sold for edible purposes. 
It resembles beef, and has no objectionable taste. 

Train oil is an old name for northern whale oil, but 
is also used to include all blubber oils. 



82 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Grades of whale oil are Nos. i, 2, 3, 4. No. i is 
pale yellow in color and has a faint fishy smell. Nos. 2 

3 and 4 are correspondingly darker and stronger in smell. 
All grades deposit large amounts of stearine on standing. 
This is sold as whale tallow or stearine, for soap making 
and lubricants. The above grades vary considerably, 
in their quaHties, depending on their source. Common 
Pacific Coast practice is as follows: 

No. I, up to 2 per cent free fatty acid. 
No. 2, from 2 to 5 per cent free fatty acid. 
No. 3, from 5 to 15 per cent free fatty acid. 
No. 4, above 15 per cent free fatty acid. 

No. I oil is made from blubber only. Nos. 2, 3 and 

4 from flesh, bones, etc. No. 2 being generally from 
flesh and residue of No. i, while 3 contains bone oil, 
and 4 is the oil from decomposed flesh. Considerable 
water is sometimes found with the lower grades of oil. 
European practice recognizes a No. o grade, containing 
up to I per cent acids. This is simply a choice grade 
of our No. I. 

The pale grades of oil are used for burning and soap, 
lower grades for leather, also as " batching " oil for jute, 
for steel tempering, as lubricant on lathes, etc., sheep dip. 

Hydrogenated oil is used for edible purposes and soap. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 91 7-. 927 

Saponification number 184-194 

Iodine number 1 10-146 

Titer 23-24° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 6-3 . 7% 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



83 



Flash-point (No. i) 570° F. 

Flash-point (No. 3) 380° F. 

Viscosity (No. i), 100° F. (Saybolt) 166 sec. 

Analyses of composite samples of domestic grades of 
whale oil made in author's laboratory are as follows: 





No. I. 


No. 3. 


No. 4. 


Free fatty acids, per cent. . . . 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 


0.85 
184 
109 

1.06 

233 

Much 

Nearly white 


938 
192 
106 

1.02 

273 
Much 
Brown 


350 

183 
124 
1.67 
22.4 
Much 


Unsaponifiable matter, per cent 
Titer, deg. C. . . . 


Stearine 


Color 


Dark brown 







One grade of Japanese whale oil is imported at Seattle, 
called No. i, acids below 3 per cent. 
Composite analysis is as follows: 

Free fatty acids i . 13% 

Saponification number 190 

Iodine number 1 20 

Unsaponifiable matter o . 95% 

Titer 21.7° C. 

Stearine Much 

Color Light brown 

Turtle on 

From body fat of species of turtle. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 919-.933 

Saponification number 193-2 11 

Iodine number iii-127 

SoUdifying-point 10-20° C. 



841 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



A sample from Hawaiian Islands contained 0.14 
per cent free fatty acids and 0.78 per cent unsaponifiable 
matter. 

Porpoise Oil 

Body oil is intermediate between blubber oils and 
liquid waxes such as sperm oil. It contains up to 4 
per cent unsaponifiable matter. 

The jaw oil of both the porpoise and dolphin is used 
for lubricating fine machinery, such as watches. It 
contains up to 16 per cent unsaponifiable matter. 



Characteristics 








Body 


Jaw. 


Specific gravity 


025-937 

195 

88-119 

.7-37 
-16 
23-40 


.926 
253-272 

21— 77 


Saponification number .... 
Iodine number . ... 


Unsaponifiable, per cent. . . 
Solidifying-point, deg. C. . . 
Volatile acids, per cent. . . . 


Up to 16.0 

47-65 



Dolphin Oil 

Both body and jaw oil are similar in characteristics 
to porpoise body and jaw oil respectively, and are 
similarly used. 



Terrestrial Animal Oils 

Silkworm Oil, Chrysalis Oil 

Obtained by extraction of chrysalis of silk worm. 
Has dark color, very bad smell, high in acids, some as 
high as 50 per cent. Contains up to 10 per cent unsapon- 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 85 

ifiable matter. May also be prepared by steaming and 
pressing. 
Importations so far have been unimportant. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 9i~-93 

Saponification number 190-194 

Iodine number 1 16-132 

Solidifying-point 7-10° C. 

Egg Oil 

From hard-boiled hen eggs, by pressure or solvents. 
Used for tanning leather. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 914 

Saponification number 185-190 

Iodine number 68-82 

Solidifying-point 8-10° C. 

Neat»s-foot Oil 

From the feet of cattle. By-product of slaughter 
houses. Obtained by boiling and skimming. The 
shin bones yield the genuine neat's-foot oil, but in the 
United States the feet are generally used with the 
shin bones. The fat of the marrow is kept separate. 

Feet of sheep and horses are sometimes mixed. Also 
the oil may be adulterated with bone oil, and other 
foreign oils, fish and vegetable oils being used for this 
purpose. Most of the latter can be readily detected. 

The oil is valued on its smell, color, low-freezing- 
point and acidity. In its use in leather a low freezing- 
point is specially desirable. It is used largely in dressing 
leather. Also for lubricant of fine machinery. 



86 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C. . . .915-. 9175 

Saponification number 194-199 

Iodine number '..... 66-76 

Solidifying-point — 3 to — 10° C 

Titer ;.... 16-26° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter i-. 65% 

The oil is graded commercially on the cold test, e.g., 
20°, 40° oil. These are the temperatures in degrees 
Fahrenheit at which stearin settles out. Most adul- 
terants will raise the iodine value, or can be detected by 
examination of the unsaponifiable matter. 

Palm Oil 

From outside fleshy part of the palm tree. West 
coast of Africa, Philippines. A South American palm 
yields much smaller amounts of oil. This oil is differ- 
ent from palm nut oil, which comes from the kernels. 
West coast of Africa is the important source. 

The oil is prepared mostly by natives in various crude 
fashions. They then bring it oftentimes long distances 
to the coast where it is collected by traders, and starts 
on its way to the final markets. The quality depends 
on the care with which it has been handled. It is said 
that the natives only obtain about one-third of the total 
oil extractable. 

The oil is used by the natives for cooking, when fresh. 
It has a sweetish taste and pleasant odor resembling 
violets, which persists even after it has been made into 
soap. When leaving the coast of Africa it has 10 to 
15 per cent free acids, but on arrival at destination 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL "ST 

these have increased to 20 to 50 per cent. Free glycerin 
is present in such oil. " Soft " oils are the low acid 
oils, while " hard " oils are high in acids. Consistency 
varies from that of soft butter to tallow, color dark 
yellow to red. It is bleached by chemical processes. 
Some red oils resist bleaching. 

It is used for soap and candles, also to coat iron sheets 
before tin plating. Palm oil grease used in the tin 
plate industry has cottonseed and mineral oil admixed. 
It is also used in lubricants, as railway axle grease, and 
in coloring butter substitutes. For lubricating, the free 
acid must be neutralized. The crude oil is sometimes 
adulterated by mixing with earth, and also generally 
contains water. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 920-.924 

Saponification number 196-205 

Iodine number 53~58 

Solidifying-point 31-39° C. 

Titer 41-49° C. 

In the candle industry palm oil is valued on the 
titer test. 

New York Produce Exchange rules that " palm oil 
shall be sold upon designations of the districts of 
origin, allowance to be made for dirt and water in excess 
of 2 per cent." 

Cacao Butter 

From cacao beans or seeds of cacao tree. West 
Indies, Central and South America, West Africa. 

By-products of cocoa and chocolate industry. (Must 



88 COMMERCIAL OILS 

not be confused with cocoanut oil, which comes from 
an entirely different tree.) 

Beans are first roasted, and shells removed. Shells 
contain 3 to 6 per cent fat, which is sometimes recovered 
as cacao shell butter. Otherwise the shells are used as 
cattle food. 

Kernels are ground and pressed hot. AlkaU car- 
bonates are added before pressing, so that the fat as 
obtained is free from acids. A certain amount of fat 
must be left in the press residue, from, which cocoa, 
etc., is prepared. 

Cacao butter is white, has a chocolate smell, and is 
somewhat brittle at ordinary temperatures. It is often 
adulterated by so-called '' chocolate fat " made from 
cocoanut or palm nut oil stearine. It is used in manu- 
facture of chocolate, confectionery, pharmacy and 
perfumes. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15.5° C 964-. 976 

Saponification number 191-202 

Iodine number 32-42 

Solidifying-point 21-26° C. 

Melting-point 28-33° C- 

Titer 48-49° C. 

Chinese Vegetable Tallow 

This is the hard fat, coating the seeds of the Chinese 
tallow tree. The kernels contain Stillingia oil. The 
best vegetable tallow is prepared with precaution not 
to obtain any of the oil admixed, as admixture of the 
oil makes the tallow of lower melting-point and softer. 



CALIFORNIA COLLEQI 

VEGBTABL£ )A^ V^f^¥f^ ^^ 

When the whole crushed seed is used in preparation, 
the product contains the oil, and is much softer. The 
pure tallow, with no admixture of oil, will not leave a 
grease spot on paper. Most of it is shipped out from 
Hankow, where it is purified. It is cast in blocks for 
shipment. Used in soap and candles. 



harcLCteristics 



Specific gravity at 15.5 C 915-.918 

Saponification number 179-231 

Iodine nimiber 19-38 

Solidifying-point 24-32° C. 

Melting-point 36-53° C. 

Titer 40-56° C. 

Pahn Nut OU, Palm Kernel OU 

From the kernels of the fruit of the palm in West 
Africa. The kernels are expressed hot and yield 40 to 
45 per cent oil. Pressed cake has Httle value. Oil is 
used for soap making. This oil, like cocoanut, will make 
soap by the cold process. It is also used in chocolate 
fats, butter substitutes. Well refined palm nut oil is 
said to have as good keeping quahties as cocoanut. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 40° C 912 

Saponification number 242-254 

Iodine number 10-17 

SoHdifying-point 23-24° C. 

Melting-point 23-30° C. 

Titer 20-25° C. 

Volatile acids (Reichert-Meissl)^ . . . 5-8% 
^ See p. 20. 



90 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Cocoanut Oil 

Obtained from kernels of cocoanut, which grow in 
the coast regions of practically all tropical countries. 
Principal territories are Ceylon, India, Java, Straits 
Settlements, Pacific South Sea Islands and South 
America. 

Kernel contains 30 to 40 per cent fat and about 50 per 
cent moisture. 

The oil has been extracted by the natives for a long 
time. Various crude methods are in use, as sun-drying, 
drying over a fire, or boiling in water and skimming off 
the oil. The latter process is used in Cochin, and 
gives the best grade of oil. If the kernels are not 
dried they soon get rancid. They must, therefore, be 
dried if they are to be shipped any distance. The 
dried produc is called " copra." The quality of 
copra depends largely on how it has been dried. Drying 
by hot air gives the best grade. Next best is sun- 
dried, and the lowest grade is kiln-dried or smoke- 
dried. This is dark colored, and often contains excess 
moisture. If the moisture is below 4 to 6 per cent, 
mold does not form on it, but copra with higher per- 
centage of water (especially above 10 per cent) becomes 
moldy, with a consequent rancidity of the oil and an 
actual loss of oil up to 25 per cent. Copra is graded 
according to origin and method of drying. 

It will contain from 50 to 75 per cent oil and may 
contain up to 30 per cent water. 

The grades under which cocoanut oil is sold are 
Cochin, Ceylon and Copra oil. 

Cochin oil, the best grade, was made originally on 
the Malabar Coast by boiling and skimming fresh 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 91 

nuts. The name now is used for best grade oil, no matter 
where it is produced, providing, of course, the quality 
is right. Cochin grade contains less than 3 per cent 
free fatty acids ordinarily. 

Ceylon is the name applied to the second grade of oil. 
This oil has not been handled with as much care as 
Cochin grade, consequently the acids are higher, 
averaging around 5 per cent. Ceylon oil may originate 
from any port, as Manila, Singapore, Java, Japan, etc. 

Copra oil is the poorest grade of cocoanut. It is 
expressed from the dried copra, which oftentimes has 
been shipped long distances before being expressed. 
The quahty of the oil will depend largely on the degree of 
drying the copra has received. In order to yield a good 
oil copra has to be very carefully prepared. 

Grades of New York Produce Exchange are as follows: 

COCOANUT OIL— Grades 

Sec. 18. — Prime Crude cocoanut oil shall not contain more than 6 
per cent of free fatty acids (calculated as oleic acid), and shall be free 
from moisture and impurities, and shall have color not deeper than 30 
yellow and 5 red, provided that any oil that tests more than 5 per cent 
of free fatty acids (calculated as oleic acid), shall not be rejected, but 
shall be reduced one-half of one per cent in the contract price for each 
I per cent excess of acidity over the maximum established; and pro- 
vided also, that if the color be deeper than 30 yellow and 5 red, adjust- 
ment shall be made in accordance with rule 7, section 2. 

Sec. 19. Fair Average Quality Crude Cocoanut Oil. — When crude 
cocoanut oil is sold as fair average quality price shall be adjusted upon the 
basis of an allowance of one-half of i per cent for each i per cent excess 
in free fatty acid over 6 per cent and a corresponding per cent in price 
for each i per cent or fraction thereof of excess moisture and impurities 
contained therein beyond i per cent. 

Sec. 20. — Other crude cocoanut oil or refined cocoanut oil shall be 
sold on sample or guarantee, with the designation of the country of 
origin. 



92 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Sec. 21. All cocoanut oils sold under these rules shall be obtained 
by pressure, not extraction, unless otherwise specified. 

Grades of Interstate Cottonseed Crushers Associa- 
tion are as follows: 

COCOANUT OIL— Grades 

Sec. 3. — Choice grade Cocoanut Oil shall be what is known as " Cochin 
Grade" and shall be pressed and not extracted and should not exceed 
2% free fatty acids, calculated as Oleic Acid, free from moisture and 
impurities, and shall have a color not greater than 6 yellow and .5 red. 

Sec. 4. — Prime Crude Cocoanut Oil shall be pressed and not extracted 
and shall not contain more than 5% of free fatty acids, calculated as 
Oleic Acid, and shall be free from moisture and impurities and shall have 
color not greater than 30 yellow and 5 red, provided that any oil that 
tests with more than 5% of free fatty acids, calculated as Oleic Acid 
shall not be rejected but shall be reduced | of i % of the contract price 
for each 1% of excess acid covered by the contract. 

Other Crude Cocoanut Oil shall be sold on sample or guarantee. 

Copra is pressed hot. The press cake is a valuable 
cattle food. It contains around 10 per cent oil and 
20 per cent protein. 

At ordinary temperatures cocoanut oil is a solid 
white fat. In warm weather it becomes much softer 
and may even become liquid. 

Good grades of cocoanut are used for edible purposes, 
as for margarins, chocolate fats, vegetable butters, 
etc. Oil containing less than 3 or 4 per cent acid is 
specially refined to deodorize it, for such purposes. 
It may be pressed to remove some of the liquid fats 
contained. A stearine from cocoanut is used in candles, 
cocoa butter substitutes, pharmacy. The olein (or 
liquid fat) is used in soap making, bakers' fat, etc. Oil 
unfit for edible purposes is used for soap. Cocoanut, 
by reason of its high saponification number ^^ has a large 

^See p. 116. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



93 



content of glycerin, around 13 to 14 per cent (depending, 
of course, on the free fatty acids). 

Cocoanut has the property of forming " cold soaps " 
with caustic alkalies, that is, a soap is formed with 
alkalies without the agency of heat (as most other oils 
require). The soap is not precipitated or rendered 
insoluble by salt solutions, hence it makes a " salt 
water " soap. 

It is not often adulterated, though palm nut oil is 
sometimes present. It, however, cannot be detected, 
and fills the same uses as cocoanut. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15° C 926 

Saponification number 246-268 

Iodine number 8-10 

SoUdifying-point 16-23° C. 

Melting-point . .^ 23-26° C. 

Volatile acids (Reichert-Meissl)i . . . 6-8% 

Titer 21-25° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter Up to .6% 

Cocoanut stearine has a titer of 26° C, the oleine 
about 20° C. 

Character of Seattle importations is shown by the 
following tables: 

FREE FATTY ACIDS 



Jan. to June, 191 8, per cent 
June to Aug., 1918, per cent 



1-2 


2-4 


4-6 


6-10 


8-10 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Per 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


Cent. 


I 


14 


61 


24 






25 


58 


14 


2 



Over 
10 Per 
Cent. 



1 See p. 20. 



94 



COMMERCIAL OILS 
WATER 





Under 0.5 
Per Cent. 


.5-1-0 
Per Cent. 


1-2 
Per Cent. 


Jan. to June, 191 8. . . . 





88 
95 


12 


June to Aug., 1918 


5 







Insoluble impurities nearly always are under 0.2 per 
cent, but occasionally exceed 0.5 per cent. 

The following are analyses of composite samples of 
oil of different grades and origin: 



Cochin. 



Ceylon 
(Manila). 



Ceylon 
rjapan). 



Free fatty acids, per cent. 
Saponification number . . . 

Iodine number 

Moisture, per cent 

Melting-point, deg. C . . . . 
Titer, deg. C 



2.6 

254 
9.6 
0.4 



233 



6.2 

257 
8.8 
0.61 
26-28 
22.7 



5-5 

257 

8.9 

0.49 

26-27 

22.4 



Japan Wax 

From berries of the sumach tree in China and Japan. 
These trees are grown for the lacquer which they 
exude. It is not a true wax, but a fat, as it contains 
glycerin. 

Hard, pale yellow, conchoidal fracture. Can be 
kneaded with the finger like wax. 

Commercial varieties may contain 15 to 30 per cent 
water. Starch up to 25 per cent has been found. This, 
of course, is an adulteration. 

It is used in poHshes, floor wax and for currying 
and finishing leather. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 95 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15° C 975 

Saponification number 220-240 

Iodine number 4-15 

Melting-point 50-54° C. 

Solidifying-point 48-50° C. 



Animal Fats 

With few exceptions animal fats are non-drying, 
that is, they do not absorb oxygen, and have a low- 
iodine number. Icebear fat has an iodine number of 
150, and rattlesnake fat of 105, and these might be 
classed as drying fats. 

The most important animal fats are lard, beef tal- 
low, mutton tallow, and butter. It has been proven 
by experiment that the character of animal fats is 
influenced largely by the kind of food the animal eats. 
Furthermore, certain substances in the food pass di- 
rectly into the animal fat. Thus it has been found that 
the substance, which in cottonseed oil produces a color 
in the Halphen test, is found in the lard of a hog fed 
upon cottonseed meal. The same has been found in the 
milk of a cow. Not only cottonseed but also sesame 
oil acts the same way. Because of this influence of 
the animal's food, the characteristics of animal fats 
vary more than do those of vegetable fats, and as a 
consequence the detection of adulterations is more 
difiicult. 

Lard (from the fat of the pig) 

The following grades are recognized in the United 
States: (i) Neutral lard, from the leaf of the pig, 



96 COMMERCIAL OILS 

rendered between 40 and 50° C, contains up to 0.25 
per cent free fatty acids. Sometimes divided into one 
and two grades. Neutral lard No. i is prepared from 
the leaf. Neutral lard No. 2 is prepared from the back 
fat. (The leaf is the portion surrounding the kidneys 
and bowels.) 

(2) Leaf lard, rendered from the residue left from the 
neutral lard by steam heat and pressure. 

(3) Choice kettle rendered lard, rendered in steam- 
jacketed open kettles from portions of leaf and back 
not used for neutral lard. 

(4) Prime steam lard rendered by steam from head, 
heart and small intestines. It may also contain fat 
from other parts. 

The United States Department of Agriculture defines 
lard as follows: 

1. Lard is the rendered fresh fat from hogs in good health at the time 
of slaughter, is clean, free from rancidity, and contains, necessarily- 
incorporated in the process of rendering, not more than one per cent of 
substances, other than fatty acids and fat. 

2. Leaf lard is lard rendered at moderately high temperatures 
from the internal fat of the abdomen of the hog, excluding that 
adherent to the intestines, and has an iodine number not greater 
than 60, 

3. Neutral lard is lard rendered at low temperatures. 

The New York Produce Exchange defines Standard 
Prime Steam Lard as follows: 

Rule 2. Sec. A. — Standard Prime Steam Lard shall be solely the 
product of the trimmings and the fat part of the hog, rendered in tanks 
by the direct application of steam and without subsequent change in 
the grain or character by the use of agitators or other machinery, except 
as such change may unavoidably come from the transportation. It 
must have proper color, flavor, dr>Tiess, and soundness for keeping, and 
no material which has been salted must be included. All lard must be 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 97 

rendered in conformity with the rules and regulations of the United 
States Department of Agriculture. The name and location of the 
Tenderer, the date of packing, and the grade of Lard, shall be plainly- 
branded on each package at the time of packing. 

Sec. B. — Prime Steam Lard of superior quality as to color, 
flavor and body may be inspected as "Prime Steam Lard, Choice 
Quality," and shall be deliverable on contracts for "Prime Steam 
Lard." 

The definitions of the Chicago Board of Trade are 
practically the same. 

Neutral lard does not keep as well as the steam- 
rendered varieties because of the lower temperature at 
which it is made. 

No. I grade is used in oleomargarine. The second 
quaUty is used by confectioners. Lard is also used in 
pharmacy and perfumes. After the edible grades of 
lard have been obtained, the remainder is worked up 
for any fat left. This grease is used for soap, lard oil, 
stearine, etc. 

Lard oil is obtained by pressing out the hquid fat of 
lard. It is used for compound lards, margarine; non- 
edible grades are used for lubricating, wool oil, burning 
oil, silk scouring. The residue left after pressing out 
the lard oil, is lard stearine. It is used in candle manu- 
facture, etc. 

Lard compound is made by thickening cottonseed oil 
with oleo stearine, or with other stearines, to get the 
proper consistency. Oleo stearine is made by pressing 
beef tallow. Vegetable stearines, or hydrogenated oil, 
may be used in place of oleo stearine. 

All of the above characteristics are influenced largely 
by the food of the animal, so that the detection of adul- 
teration in lard is often a very difficult matter. 



98 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



Characteristics of Lard and Lard Oil. 






Lard. 


Lard OU. 


Specific gravity at 15° C 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 


.934- 938 
195-203 

47- 85 
36- 48 
27- 30 
19- 36 


•9I3--9I9 

190-198 

67- 88 


Melting-point, deg. C 

Solidifying-point, deg. C 

Titer, deg. C 


—4 to +10 







Bone Fat 

Obtained from bones by boiling, steaming, or extrac- 
tion by solvents. Latter process yields bad smelling 
oil unsuitable for soap and used in candles only, or very 
cheap soap. 

Bone oil is obtained from bone fat the same as lard 
oil is obtained from lard, and is used as a lubricant on 
account of its low cold test, and also, in the leather 
industry, in a similar manner to neat's-foot oil. 

It is very low in free fatty acids. 

Characteristics of Bone Fat 

Specific gravity at 15° C 914-.916 

Saponification number 1 91-195 

Iodine number 46-56 

Melting-point 21-22° C. 

Solidifying-point I5~i7° C. 

Tallow (Either from Beef or Sheep) 

Tallow is classified as edible or inedible and also by 
the name of the animal. 

Beef Tallow 

For edible grades, as for margarine use, the kidney fat 
(suet) is used. In freshly rendered tallow the free acids 



tAUhORNIA COLLECff 

of PHARMACY 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



99 



are less than 0.5 per cent, but poor grades may contain 
over 25 Der cent. 

Tallows are generally sold on titer, acids, non-fatty 
matter and color test. The determination of water is 
also important. Besides the edible uses, it goes into 
soap, candles and greases. The higher the titer test 
the more valuable it is for soap and candles. 

Tallow used to be the chief soap-making fat, because 
of its high titer and availabihty. Since hydrogenated 
oils are becoming so common, the soap maker is not so 
dependent on tallow. 

Candle makers do not want the titer below 44° C. 
Tallow of lower titer is used for soap. For railway 
axle grease the titer should not be below 41° C. Tallow 
is sometimes adulterated with mineral matter and other 
foreign ingredients. 

Mutton tallow has a stronger odor than beef tallow, 
and cannot be used in margarine or high-class soaps. 
It is harder, with a higher titer test, solidifying- and 
melting-point. It is sometimes sold mixed with beef 
tallow. It has more tendency to turn rancid than beef 
tallow. 



Characteristics of Beef and Mutton Tallow: 



Beef. 



Mutton. 



Specific gravity at 15° C 
Saponification number . . 

Iodine number 

Titer, deg. C 

Solidifying-point, deg. C. 
Melting-point, deg. C . . . 



943-952 


•937-- 953 


193-200 


-92-195 


35- 47 


3i- 34 


43- 45 


43- 46 


27- 35 


32- 41 


40- 48 


44- 49 



100 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Oleo stearine or beef stearine is the stearine obtained 
by pressing tallow. 

Oleo oil or tallow oil is the resultant liquid fat. 

Oleo stearine is largely used in lard substitute, oleo- 
margarine, etc. 

Oleo oil is used in oleomargarine. 

Horse Fat 

Sometimes used for edible purposes in place of lard, 
but its chief use is in soap. Characteristics similar to 
lard or tallow. Iodine number is higher, 75 to 86. 

Buttei Fat 

While butter has in general no place in the oil trade, 
the characteristics are herewith given for comparative 
purposes: 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15° C 936-. 946 

Saponification number ,221-233 

Iodine number. . 25-50 

Melting-point ^^~33° C. 

SoUdifying-point 19-24° C. 

According to United States Department of Agricul- 
ture rules, butter must contain not less than 82.5 per 
cent milk (or true butter) fat. To comply with this 
rule the water cannot be over 16 per cent. 

Butter Substitute. Oleomargarine^ 

Mixture of animal fats (such as oleo oil or neutral 
lard, or beef stearine), and vegetable fats, in oils such as 
^ See also p. 107. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 101 

cottonseed oil or cottonseed stearine. Oleo oil is churned 
with vegetable oil or fat and with pasteurized skim milk. 
Sometimes butter flavor or color is added. 

Renovated Butter 

Process butter is the product made by melting butter 
and reworking, without the addition or use of chemicals 
or any substances except milk, cream, or salt, and con- 
tains not more than i6 per cent water, and at least 82.5 
per cent of milk fat. — U. S. Dept. Agriculture. 

Waxes 

Waxes are distinguished from oils and fats in that they 
do not contain glycerin, or at least only in smaller 
amounts. They are combinations of fatty acids (which 
are in general the same as those of oils and fats) and 
higlier alcohols (the alcohols replacing glycerin). 

The waxes yield large amounts of unsaponifiable mat- 
ter, which in this case consists mainly of the higher 
alcohols. 

Liquid Waxes 
Represented by sperm oil. 

Sperm Oil 

This is classed as a liquid wax because it does not con- 
tain glycerin, thus distinguishing it from other oils. 
It is obtained from the head cavity and blubber of the 
sperm whale. The head oil is worth more than the 
blubber oil. The two are sold in the proportion of 
one- third head and two- thirds blubber oil as No. i 
sperm oil. The body oil of sperm is graded as No. 2 



102 COMMERCIAL OILS 

and 3 oil, and contains considerable amounts of free 
fatty acids. 

The oil is subjected to cold to settle out the sperm- 
aceti, and then filter pressed. This gives winter sperm 
oil, standing a cold test of 38° F., the usual standard. 
By further pressing, oils of higher cold test are obtained 
such as " spring " and " taut " sperm oil. The press 
cake is crude spermaceti. 

Pacific coast grades of sperm oil are as follows: 

No. I, one- third head, two- thirds blubber oil, acids 
up to 2 per cent, specific gravity not over .884. 

No. 2, body oil, acids up to 5 per cent. 

No. 3, body oil, acids up to 15 per cenjt. 

As the specific gravity of sperm oil is low, a high 
gravity points to admixture of other oils. No. i sperm 
oil is specified to have a gravity of not over .884 at 
15.5° C. Spermaceti will also raise the gravity. 

Inasmuch as the presence of mineral oil cannot be 
detected in sperm oil by simple determination of the 
percentage of unsaponifiable matter, there is an in- 
ducement sometimes towards adulteration in this way. 
Mineral oils can be detected by special methods of exami- 
nation of the unsaponifiable matter, such as acetyl- 
ation. 

Sperm oil is a valuable lubricating oil. It has 
very little tendency to gum. The viscosity does not 
decrease with increase of temperature so rapidly as 
other oils, which makes it specifically valuable for 
high temperature work. It is also used in leather 
finishing. 

Arctic sperm oil or bottbnose oil has more of a tend- 
ency to gum, and brings a lower price. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



103 



Characteristics 



Specific gravity at 15.5 

Saponification number 

Iodine number 

Titer, deg. C 

Flash-point 

Unsaponifiable matter, per cent 



Sperm. 



.844-. 884 

123-150 

76-96 

II.I-II.9 

390-485° 

37-44 



Arctic Sperm. 



876-. 881 
121-136 

67-85 
8.3-8.8 

31-43 



Solid Waxes 



Carnauba Wax 



From leaves of a palm in South America, chiefly in 
Brazil. Obtained by melting in boiling water. Used 
in polishes, candles, varnishes, waterproofing, etc. 
Gives very good luster in polishes. May be adulterated 
with paraffin, stearine, etc., which can be readily detected. 
Free fatty acids up to 2 per cent. 



Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15° C 995-1 .00 

Melting-point 83-91° C. 

Sohdifying-point 80-87° C. 

Saponification number 78-88 

Iodine number 13-14 

Wool Wax or Wool Grease 

Removed from wool by scouring with soap, or by 
solvents. 

It has the property of mixing with water and finds use 
in pharmacy and cosmetics, when refined. The refined 
products are adeps lanae and lanolin. Adeps lanae 



104 COMMERCIAL OILS 

is free from water, and lanolin is mixed with 20 to 25 
per cent water. 

The crude product is known as brown grease, re- 
covered grease or, in the United States as degras, and 
is used in currying leather. Distilled wool grease is 
made by distilling with steam. The liquid portion is 
used as a wool oil, the solid portion for soap and candles. 

Characteristics 

SoHdifying-point Around 30° C 

Melting-point 31-42° C 

Saponification number 82-130 

Iodine number 17-52 

Unsaponifiable matter 43-52% 

Beeswax 

Secreted by bees. Used in candles, polishes, etc. 

Characteristics 

Melting-point 62-70° C. 

Solidifying-point 60-63° C 

Saponification number 90-107 

Iodine number 8-14 

Unsaponifiable matter 52-56% 

Spermaceti 

From the head cavity of the sperm whale. See sperm 
oil. 

Used for candles, cosmetics, etc. 

Brittle, white, translucent. Crude sperm oil yields 
about 10 per cent spermaceti. The crude press cake 
from the sperm oil pressing is melted and refined with 
caustic soda. 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 105 

Characteristics 

Specific gra\dty at 15"^ C 942-. '^60 

Saponification number 120-135 

Iodine number 3-7 

Melting-point 41-46° C. 

Solidifying-point 41-49° C. 

Unsaponifiable matter 49-53% 

insect Wax (Chinese Wax) 

Secretion of an insect in Western China. Yellowish 
white, resembles spermaceti, but is harder and can be 
powdered more easily. Used in China and Japan for 
polishes, sizing for fabric, candles. 

Characteristics 

Specific gravity at 15° C 970 

Melting-point 80-83° C. 

Sohdif}dng-point 80-81° C. 

Saponification number 80-93 

Iodine number 1-2 

Unsaponifiable matter , 49-51% 



CIL\PTER III 

Uses of Oils 

In the following section the various uses to which oils 
are put will be briefly discussed. 

Edible Oils 
For general discussion see page lo. 

Salad Oils 

Common oils in use in the United States are : Cotton- 
seed, corn, oHve, peanut, sesame, soya. Almost all 
vegetable oils are used in different countries except cer- 
tain oils which have toxic effects, such as castor, China 
wood, croton, etc. 

Salad oils are often a blend of several oils. It is 
specially important that salad oils be freed previously 
from stearine, so that none will separate out on the table. 
They must be low in acids, free from rancidity and of 
good taste. 

Besides salad oils, oils are used somewhat in cooking 
and baking, though in this country the use of sohd fats 
is more common for these purposes. 

Edible Fats 

Commonly used fats are lard, butter, tallow (suet), 

cacao butter. 1 An edible fat must be low in acids, free 

from rancidity, and of good taste. 

^ Solid vegetable fats are considerably used for edible purposes in 
their native countries. 

106 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 107 

The higher-priced edible fats are often replaced by 
substitutes. Hydrogenated oils are playing an in- 
creasingly important part as edible fats and are used 
in all the following, as well as the natural products. 

(i) Tallow substitutes; mixtures of tallow or beef 
stearine, with cottonseed oil, cottonseed stearine, cocoa- 
nut oil, or other edible oils. 

(2) Butter substitutes: Margarines, mixtures of 
animal and vegetable fats. 

Oleomargarine: (See page 100, under Butter.) Made 
from oleo oil (pressed from beef tallow) or neutral lard, 
churned with vegetable oils and pasteurized skim milk. 
Vegetable oils used in oleomargarine are cottonseed, 
sesame,^ peanut, soya and corn. 

Margarines are also made which consist exclusively of 
vegetable oils. Cocoanut or palm nut oil is usually 
the base of these, sometimes cottonseed stearine. 
Cocoanut oil is refined and deodorized by processes 
which are generally kept secret. Sometimes cocoanut 
oil is emulsified with water, eggs, milk, salt, to make the 
product more like butter. 

(3) Lard Substitutes: Mixtures of lard or lard 
stearine, with beef or mutton stearine, cottonseed 
stearine, cottonseed oil, corn, peanut, sesame, cocoanut 
and palm nut oils. Such mixtures are labeled as " lard 
compound " in the United States. 

(4) Cacao Butter Substitutes: Chocolate fats, sub- 
stitute for cacao butter in cheap chocolate or in confec- 
tionery where more fat is required than would be fur- 
nished by the chocolate. Animal fats in general are 
not suitable. Cocoanut oil, pahn nut oil, or stearine 

See p. 55. 



108 COMMERCIAL OILS 

from these, to give required consistency, are used. 
Sometimes waxes have been added as stiff eners. 

Oils for Medicinal Purposes 

Castor and cod Hver oils are the two most commonly 
used. 

Various preparations are made of castor and cod 
liver oils to make them more palatable as e.g., efferves- 
cent oil, i.e., saturated with carbon dioxide, mixtures 
with milk, gum arabic, etc. 

Phosphorized oils are treated with phosphorus, the 
phosphorus dissolving in the oil. Almond oil is so 
treated. 

Iodized and brominated oils have been treated with 
iodine and bromine. 

Burning or Illuminating Oils 

Almost every kind of oil has been used for this pur- 
pose in different countries. Use of vegetable and 
animal oils has been decreased much by petroleum oils. 
Lard, whale, seal, rape and olive are still used in various 
countries. Drying or semi-drying oils are not suitable, 
because of gumming tendency. Acids should be less 
than 5 per cent. High acid oil causes charring of wick 
and smoky flame. Mineral acid (from refining) should 
be absent. Mucilaginous or insoluble matter tend to 
clog the wick. 

Paint Oils 

Drying oils only are suitable. Linseed is the best and 
oldest paint oil. Walnut and poppyseed are used for 
high-grade paint. China wood, soya, corn and men 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL tO& 

haden are also used.^ China wood is used after heating 
and the addition of a drier. Other semi-drying oils are 
sometimes used as adulterants. 

Extracted oils are not suitable for the best paint.^ 
Most paint oils are used in the form of boiled oils 
(see pages 36, iii). 

Lubricating Oils 

Before the introduction of petroleum oils, vegetable 
and animal oils and fats were exclusively used for lubri- 
cating. Their use is not now so common. Tallow oil, 
lard oil, neat's-foot, castor, rape, olive, tallow, sperm, 
porpoise and dolphin are used. Drying and semi- 
drying oils are not used because of their tendency to 
gum. 2 A lubricating oil should be free from mineral 
acids and low in free fatty acid. Viscosity is very 
important, as it is chiefly to their viscosity that oils owe 
their lubricating value. The viscosity must not be 
too greatly decreased by heating. Lubricating oils 
should have a high flash-point^ and burning-point, and a 
low freezing- or solidifying-point. The specifications 
for these latter properties depend on the specific use to 

^ There are a number of other oils which give good promise of becoming 
important drying oils, such as perilla, hempseed, candlenut, or lumbang, 
stillingia, etc. Use of these oils will be extended as new ways of applying 
them are found. 

^ For tests as to the suitability of an oil for paint use, see pp. 34, 35, 
44, III. 

3 Another important objection to drying oils would be their tendency 
to spontaneous combustion on cotton "waste." 

* The flash point is the temperature at which the oil first catches 
fire, determined by trying the surface with a flame. The oil is heated 
during the test either in an open or closed cup. Burning point is 
the temperature at which the oil continues burning. 



110 COMMERCIAL OILS 

which the oil is to be put and the climatic conditions of 
the place where it is to be used. A cylinder oil needs 
a higher flash-point than a bearing oil. The former 
should not be below 500° F. and the latter 350° F. 

Wool Oils, Cloth Oils 

Used for lubricating the fibers of the wool previous 
to spinning. Olive oil, lard oil, neat's-foot oil, and oleic 
acid are used. Wool grease, distilled grease, and seek 
oil may be used. Seek oil is the recovered grease from 
scourings of silk, wool or cotton goods. Drying and 
semi-drying oils are unsuitable, as these would have a 
tendency to cause spontaneous combustion. Wool oils 
must be easily removable by scouring, therefore the 
unsaponifiable matter should be low. Flash-point should 
be high. 

Hydrogenated or Hardened Oils or Fats 

Almost all liquid oils can be changed to hard fats by 
the action of hydrogen on the oil in the presence of a 
substance called the catalyst. Nickel is one of the 
most commonly used catalysts. The oil is deodorized 
in the process. It is difficult or impossible to tell what 
the original oil was after hardening. 

The melting-point or titer of the product can be con- 
trolled in the process to produce any desired result. 
This is of great advantage to the soap and candle maker. 
Hardened oils and fats are used in margarines, lard 
substitutes, soap, candles, etc. Those intended for 
edible purposes should of course fulfill the same speci- 
fications as other edible oils. The presence of metals, 
left in the oil from the hydrogenating process, if in too 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 111 

large amount will prevent their use for edible purposes. 
Only traces of these metals are permissible. Nickel 
in hardened fat runs generally less than o.oi per cent, 
some as low as 0.003 P^^ cent. 

There is considerable advantage in shipping hardened 
oils over Hquid oils, as there is no danger of loss by 
leakage. 

BoUed Oils 

Formed by heating drying oils with substances called 
driers, such as manganese, cobalt, and lead compounds. 
These latter hasten the absorption of oxygen when the 
oil is exposed in a film, as in paints and varnish. 

Linseed oil is most commonly used. Perilla and 
menhaden are satisfactory. Candle nut, hempseed, 
soya, china wood, poppyseed are not as satisfactory. 

A practical test for the suitabiHty of a drying oil is 
to heat it to 300° C. rapidly. In this test it should 
remain clear. An oil not suitably refined will separate 
out a sediment in this test. 

Boiled oils are used in varnishes, paints, enamels, etc. 

Varnishes 

Mixtures of boiled oils with gums or resins (such as 
damar, copal, rosin, etc.), and turpentine or other thin- 
ner. China wood oil is finding an increasing use in 
varnishes. 

Linseed oil has always been the standard oil for 
varnishes. 

Lithographic varnish, or oil, is linseed oil which has 
been heated to 250 to 300° C, but has not had a drier 
added. The thickness depends on time of heating. 



112 COMMERCIAL OILS 

Enamels are mixtures of varnishes with pigments. 
Paints are mixtures of boiled oils, pigments and 
thinner. 

Blown Oils, Oxidized Oils 

Oils through which a current of air, oxygen or ozone 
has been blown. Drying and semi-drying oils, either 
animal or vegetable, are suitable for blowing. Blown 
oils are higher in gravity and viscosity than the original 
oil, that is they become thicker. The viscosity ap- 
proaches that of castor, and such oils are sometimes 
called '' soluble castor oil " because they are soluble in 
petroleum oils, whereas castor oil is not. 

Corn, cottonseed, rape, seal, sperm and fish oils are 
blown for use in lubricants, and to some extent in 
leather. 

Blown linseed oil (along with other drying oils), is 
used in Knoleum, by mixing with various gums or 
resins. For this purpose the oil is blown until it forms 
a soHd. 

Rubber Substitute, Vulcanized Oils 

By the action of sulphur or sulphur chloride on certain 
oils, solid masses, somewhat like rubber in consistency 
are formed. These are used in compounding rubber 
goods. 

Rape, castor, corn, soya, peanut, sesame and linseed 
oils are so used. Nitrated oils also are used as rubber 
substitute. 

Nitrated Oils 

Linseed or castor oil treated with nitric acid form 
thick heavy liquids. Solutions of these in acetone are 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 113 

used in paints, varnishes and enameled leather, and 
as rubber substitute. 

Sulphonated Oils 

Turkey red oiP used in dyeing and printing cotton 
fiber is a sulphonated oil, that is, one that has been 
treated with sulphuric acid. Castor oil so treated forms 
the original Turkey red oil. Olive, peanut and cotton- 
seed oils are also used. The value of a Turkey red oil 
depends on its action towards the fiber on which it is 
to be used, in fixing dyes. Turkey red oil is also used 
as a wool oil. 

Candles. 

In the manufacture of candles, fats are first saponified 
by various processes, and the mixed fatty acids obtained 
separately from the glycerin. The mixed fatty acids 
consist of soHd acid as stearic acid or stearine, and liquid 
acids as oleic acid. The latter are of no use to the 
candle maker. The mixture of acids is pressed to 
free the stearine from the oleic or liquid acids. Dis- 
tillation of the oleic acid is also used as a means of 
separation. Oleic acid is a by-product. 

By such means stearine of the required consistency or 
melting-point is obtained. The higher the titer test 
therefore of a fat, the higher will be the yield of stearine 
suitable for candles. The titer test is the sohdifying- 
point of the total fatty acids of an oil or fat. 

Tallow, bone fat, palm oil, cottonseed stearine, vege- 
table tallow and artificially hardened oils and fats are 
all used. Waxes such as spermaceti or beeswax are used 

1 See p. 68. 



114 COMMERCIAL OILS 

in stiffening, as are also mineral wax such as paraffin, 
ceresin, etc. Paraffin has come to be a very important 
ingredient of candles, and has somewhat lessened the 
importance of vegetable and animal stearine for this 
purpose. 

Fatty Acids 

Stearine is the name applied to the mixture of solid 
fatty acids, obtained as in candle making. It is a mix- 
ture of stearic and palmitic acids. Besides its use in 
candles, it is used in poKshes, waterproofing prepara- 
tions, phonograph records, etc. Low grades may be 
used in soap. 

The name stearine is also appKed to solid fats separat- 
ing out naturally from hquid oils. This ^' stearine " is 
a solid fat instead of a solid fatty acid, that is, it is a com- 
bination of a solid fatty acid (e.g., stearic acid) and 
glycerin. 

Oleic acid, oleine, eleine, or red oil, is the name applied 
to the liquid fatty acids, separated in candle making. 
Saponification oleine is obtained by refrigeration and 
pressing; distilled oleine by the distillation process. 
It is used in soap making and for wool oils. 

Soap Stock Fatty Acids 

These are prepared from fats by saponification in 
establishments whose chief aim is the recovery of 
glycerin. The fatty acids resultant are used by soap 
makers. This gives the small soap maker the material 
which he needs for soap, and does not compel him to 
recover the glycerin, thereby removing a handicap 
which he would have in competing with large soap 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 116 

factories which can well afford to recover the glycerin, 
because of the scale on which they operate. Almost 
any oil is used by plants making soap stock acids. 

Soap 

Soap is a combination of the fatty acids of oils or fats 
with a base such as an alkaH (potash, soda, ammonia) 
or alkaline earth (lime, magnesia, etc.), or metals (alu- 
minum, iron, lead, etc.). The character of the resultant 
soap depends both on the base and on the oil used, so 
that a great variety of soaps may be made. Almost 
all oils are used in soap. 

Soda gives a harder soap than potash. The drying 
oils (linseed, hempseed, fish) give soft soaps. Solid 
fats give hard soaps. The semi-drying oils (cottonseed, 
etc.) may be used as admixture in both soft and hard 
soaps depending on the consistency desired. 

Oils and fats are valued by the soap maker on the 
amount of unsaponifiable matter they contain. A com- 
mon determination required by the soap maker is what 
is knowTi as 77iiu, which stands for moisture, insoluble 
sediment (or dirt) and unsaponifiable matter. None 
of these of course will make soap. When glycerin is 
high priced the amount of glycerin which an oil contains 
also influences the value of it to the soap maker. (See 
glycerin for method of estimating.) 

Soaps are made to fit special uses, as toilet, laundry, 
textile soaps. 

Glycerin 

The glycerin in combination with the fatty acids of an 
oil or fat, is obtained by the soap and candle maker as a 
by-product. 



116 COMMERCIAL OILS 

The amount of glycerin in an oil is not a fixed quantity. 
Oils contain mono-, di-, and tri-glycerides. That is, 
one, two, or three equivalent weights of fatty acids, are 
united with one equivalent of glycerin. The percentage 
of glycerin in a tri-glyceride is less than in a mono- 
glyceride. The tri-glycerides are, however, the chief 
constituents of natural oils, and therefore the amount 
of glycerin can be approximated from the saponifica- 
tion number, as follows: 

Subtract from loo the combined percentage of water, 
insoluble and unsaponifiable matter. Divide the saponi- 
fication number determined on the oil by the remainder, 
giving the approximate saponification nimiber of the neu- 
tral oil. Multiply by lo, divide by 183, giving the ap- 
proximate percentage of glycerin in the neutral oil. 
Subtract from 100 the combined percentage of water, 
insoluble and unsaponifiable matter, and free fatty acids, 
and multiply the percentage of glycerin in the neutral 
oil by this remainder, giving the glycerin percentage 
in the original oil. 
Take for example the following analysis of an oil: 

Water 2.0% 

Insoluble matter 0.2 

Unsaponifiable matter 2.0.... sum 4 . 2 

Free fatty acids 4.0 sum 8 . 2 

Saponification number 195 

icx) — 4.2= 95.8 

-^ = 20 s saponification number of neutral oil. 
95-8 

20^X10 , . . , ., 

— ^ = 1 1 . 1 per cent glycerm m neutral oil. 

ii.iX(ioo — 8. 2) = 11.1X91.8 = 10.2 per cent glycerin in 

original oil. 



VEGETABLE -\XD .\XBL\L 117 

A shorter method is to multiply the saponification 
nimaber by lo and di\'ide by 183, and then multiply by 
the percentage of neutral oil, i.e., 100 per cent minus 
the simi of the water, insoluble, unsaponifiable and 
free fatty acids. This method is not as accurate as the 
foregoing. 

The percentage of glycerin can of course be deter- 
mined accurately by chemical methods. 

The cocoanut group of oils have the highest percent- 
age of glycerin, and the rape oil group the lowest. 

Polishes 

Mixtures of waxes, stearine, oils, with solvents such as 
turpentine. 

Foots, Soap Stock 

Foots are residues or sediments from the refining 
of oil. They consist of impurities such as mucilaginous 
matter, water, dirt in the original oil, and stearine (or 
soKd fat). When alkalies are used in refining, a soap 
is formed with the free acid in the oil, and this is also 
contained in the foots. Some neutral oil is always en- 
tangled with it. Cottonseed soap stock^ is such a prod- 
uct. The character of foots depends on the refining 
process used on the crude oil. 

Black grease is the fatty matter obtained by treating 
soap stock with acid (also called acidified soap stock). ^ 

Greases 

Waste fats from garbage, slaughter houses, etc., stearine 
from whales and fish, are worked into grease, which is a 

1 See p. 53- 



118 COMMERCIAL OILS 

general name for low grade, more or less solid fats. 
Greases are used in candles, soap, lubricants, etc., 
depending on their character. (See also wool fat.) 

Sod Oil, Degras 

In the chamoising process of treating skins, whale, 
menhaden and cod oil are rubbed into the skins. They 
are then left to ferment for some time, and afterwards 
the excess oil is separated. The oil so obtained is 
very different than the original oil. It contains water 
and other impurities, and is used in dressing leather. 
Sometimes skins are worked for the sole purpose of 
preparing degras or sod oil. 

Degras is the heavy grease first obtained from the 
skins. After this is collected (by pressure) the skins are 
washed with alkali, and the solution so obtained neu- 
trahzed with sulphuric acid, giving sod oil. The fore- 
going applies to European practice. 

The name " degras " in the United States is appHed 
to the grease from wool scouring. 

Fish oils, tallow and various greases are sometimes 
substituted for degras or sod oil. 

Degras or sod oil is valued on the amount of water, 
impurities and unsaponifiable matter. They are used in 
the treatment of leather. 

Stuffing grease is a mixture of degras with tallow, 
fish stearine or other waste fats, sometimes soft soap. 
It is used in tanning. 



CHAPTER IV 

Sampling 

The correct sampling of oils is a very difficult matter, 
and one that requires very careful attention. It is 
frequently done, however, in a careless manner, and 
perhaps there is no other one reason that causes so 
many misunderstandings and disputes in the oil trade 
as incorrect samples. Practically all oil, it may be said, 
is sold on the basis of sample submitted to the buyer 
by the seller, or on analysis of sample by a chemist. 
If now the sample does not correctly represent the lot 
of oil which is being offered for sale, trouble is sure to 
arise, and this is the cause of most of the " claims " 
in the trade. The buyer very seldom sees the lot of 
oil he buys until it is dehvered to him. 

One of the chief difficulties in getting a correct sample 
of a lot of oil is the presence of water, foots, insoluble 
matter of various kinds, etc. After oil has been standing 
for some time, or has been shipped some distance, these 
settle to the bottom of the container, and to get a 
correct sample must again be mixed with the bulk of 
the oil. This often is very difficult and even impossible 
practically, and so methods of sampHng have to be 
employed in practice which will approximate as nearly 
as possible an accurate sampk. 

Methods of sampling vary with the kind of container. 
What is appHcable to one is not to another. The 

119 



120 COMMERCIAL OILS 

various sampling methods will be discussed therefor 
according to the kind of container. 

Tank Cars. 

The time to take an accurate sample of a tank ca 
is during loading, or immediately after the car is loaded 
While the stream of oil is running into the car, a dij 
may be taken from the stream of oil at regular intervals 
and all the samples thus obtained combined into om 
composite sample after careful mixing. Immediately 
after the car is loaded the oil is pretty well mixed ii 
the car. Even at this time, however, it is not saf( 
to take one dip in the car and take this as the sample 
for if the first oil which went into the car is differen 
than the last, only an imperfect mixture of the tw( 
layers will have taken place in the loading process 
and one dip will not give an accurate sample. If 
however, a dip is taken out of about six different layer: 
from top to bottom of the car, and all these dips com 
bined into one composite sample, this composite wil 
be a very accurate sample of the contents of the car 
These separate dips can be very conveniently taker 
by a can fastened at the end of a pole, with a stoppei 
arranged to be withdrawn when the desired deptl 
has been reached. The bottom dip should always b( 
taken as near the bottom of the tank as possible. Mos 
tank cars have a sump in the bottom, into which th< 
sampling can may be inserted, thus getting the oi 
at the very bottom of the car. 

Sometimes a trier or thief with a closing valve oi 
the bottom is used on tank cars, but this is very cum 
bersome to handle, and for this very reason is liabl 



^ ^ COLLEGE 

o^ PHARMACY 

VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 121 

not to take an accurate sample. Another objection to 
it is the difficulty in cleaning it between samples. 
Sampling instruments must always be kept clean. A 
trier or thief without a valve on the bottom which may 
be closed when the bottom of the tank is reached, is 
absolutely worthless. A thief does not take a sample 
proportional to the mass of the oil in the various layers 
from top to bottom of a cylindrical container, but takes 
the same amount out of each layer regardless of the 
fact that a foot of depth in the middle represents much 
more oil than a foot of depth at either the top or the 
bottom. In sampling by dip cans this may be com- 
pensated for, if desired, by combining the dips in dif- 
ferent proportions in making up the composite sample. 

After a tank has stood for a time, or especially after 
it has been shipped for a distance, the water and in- 
soluble matter settle to the bottom. If there is much 
insoluble matter and the car has . come a long way, the 
insoluble matter may become packed, as it were, in 
a layer on the bottom. It is then very difficult to dis- 
lodge or to mix with the bulk of the oil in order to get 
a uniform mixture. It is very seldom practical in any 
case to attempt to make a uniform mixture of the 
contents of a tank car for sampling purposes. Com- 
pressed air is sometimes tried as a means of agitation, 
but in this process water may either be added to the 
car or abstracted from it, depending upon the tempera- 
ture of the oil and the degree of wetness of the com- 
pressed air. 

The best way to take an accurate sample of a car 
which has settled into two layers is to draw off the two 
layers separately in unloading the car, taking samples 



122 COMMERCIAL OILS 

from the stream of oil at regular intervals of time. 
If, for instance, the upper or clear layer is unloaded 
first, it is sampled regularly, and at the point where 
a change is noticed in the character of the oil running, 
the unloading is stopped long enough to measure the 
volume remaining in the tank. After unloading com- 
mences again, a second series of samples is taken from 
the bottom oil. These two series of samples are each 
combined into separate composites, and analysis made 
of each. Knowing the volume of each layer, the average 
for the car can be readily computed. More than two 
layers can be thus sampled if desired. 

The difficulty of sampling accurately a tank car on 
delivery disappears if the oil does not carry any amount 
of water or insoluble matter. The car may then be 
sampled by a dip method as described above, taking 
care to mix the bottom dip with the others in the 
correct proportion to represent the proportional volimies. 

WTien the contents of tank cars are solid, as in the 
case of cocoanut oil in cold weather, it is best to sample 
as above, after the oil has been warmed and is unloading. 

Barrels. 

It is generally not necessary to sample every barrel 
of a lot of oil. Usual practice is to sample one in 
ever>' ten barrels, or ten per cent. In the case of a 
lot of oil which arises from more than one source, or 
in the case of a lot containing much water, it may be 
necessar}' to sample more frequently than one in every 
ten. Sometimes every barrel is sampled in the case 
of very '' spotty " lots. In sampling barrels, the same 
precautions must be observed as noted above, to get 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 123 

an accurate sample of the oil, water, and insoluble 
matter in the correct proportions. After a barrel has 
stood for a time the water and insoluble matter will 
be found at the bottom or one side, depending on the 
position in which the barrel has stood. Where an oil 
is " thin " enough to permit a remixing of the water, 
etc., with the bulk of the oil, the separated layers may 
be mixed by rolHng the barrel back and forth until 
mixture is obtained. If, however, the barrel is entirely 
full of oil, with no air space at the top, it is difficult to 
get a good mixture in this way. In the case of very 
viscous oils, as for example, castor, China wood, etc., 
it is almost impossible to mix in this manner, without 
taking an unduly long time in the operation. Such 
oils are best sampled in barrels by a trier or thief run 
to the bottom. Even when a barrel has been mixed 
by rolling, the thief should be run to the bottom for 
the sample. Special precautions must be taken not to 
insert the trier any faster into the oil than the oil rises 
in the tube. If this rate of insertion is exceeded any 
water in the bottom of the barrel will be forced into 
the trier in imdue proportion. This precaution must 
be specially observed in the case of oils of high viscosity. 
The various trier samples may then be combined into 
one composite sample representing the whole lot. 

Cases. 

Much oil is shipped from the Orient in what are called 
" case lots." Two 5-gallon oil cans are packed in a 
wooden case. It has been found by experience that 
an accurate sample may be obtained on most of such 
lots, by opening one can out of every twenty cases, or 



124 COM^IERCIAL OILS 

what is called a five per cent sample. It is hardly 
practicable to sample more frequently than this, and is 
not often necessar}- . The best way to sample cases is to 
first withdraw one can from the case, mix thoroughly 
by up-ending a number of times, punch a small hole in 
the top and pour out a small quantity of the contents. 
Special precaution must be used to mix well ver}- viscous 
oils. Cocoanut oil, or other solid oil in cases, must 
be sampled by a trier. Case lots which have originated 
from more than one source may be spotty, and may 
need closer sampling than hve per cent. 

A more accurate sample may be obtained of a case 
lot when it is being dumped, if it is desirable to wait 
until such time. 

Storage Tanks. 

These are best sampled by the dip method as de- 
scribed imder tank cars. The various dips should be 
taken at predetermined points in the depth of the tank. 
In the case of a cylindrical tank standing on end each 
dip represents an equal volume, and may be combined 
in equal proportions. In the case of a cylindrical tank 
hing on its side, the various dips should be combined 
proportionally to the volume which each represents. 

Oil Seeds, Cake, etc. 

Various methods may be used for such materials, 
depending on their nature. Seeds are generally sampled 
by inserting a trier. In the case of sacked seeds, the 
trier may be inserted into ever}* tenth sack, to make 
a ten per cent sample. The trier used should be propn 
erly proportioned to the size of the seeds being sampled. 



\TGETABLE AND ANIMAL 125 

Cake may be sampled also by a trier. Capm cannot 
be sampled by trier. Sufficient sacks are opened and 
sample w-ithdra\^Ti by hand. It is a wise precaution 
to dump a nimiber of the sacks and take part of the 
sample from the bottom of the sack. 

The whole object of sampling is, of course, to get a 
sample in w^hich aD the various components will be 
represented in the same proportion in the sample as in 
the material being sampled. Too hard and fast mks 
can not be laid down for sampling methods; judgment 
and common sense must alwa}'5 be used. Sampling 
should never be entrusted to inexperienced men. The 
sampler must know the material he is sampling in order 
to seciu-e an accurate sample. He must be able to 
decide on the best method of sampling when he arrives 
at the lot to be sampled. Oftentimes the manner in 
which a lot is stored on dock or in warehouse influences 
very much the manner in which the lot is to be sampled, 
and the sampler must be a man of sufficient judgment 
to work out a practical and at the same time as accurate 
a method as possible under the special conditions. 

In almost any of the above methods of sampling from 
one gallon up to several gallons will be accumulated 
in the composite sample. This amount is generally 
larger than is needed for the sample. It is thoroughly 
mixed and the final sample taken out. WTien sending a 
sample to a chemist for analysis it is best to send at 
least a pint or quart. The practice of sending only a 
4-oimce bottle is not good, as many times it does not 
afford the chemist sufficient oil for the required deter- 
minations. 

Generally part of the sample taken is put in storage 



126 COMMERCIAL OILS 

until the lot of oil which it represents is finally disposed 
of. For storage i -gallon tin cans are best. They 
should be kept in as cool a place as possible. Storage 
in glass bottles is not good. The light has considerable 
effect on the free fatty acid content, especially if they 
are exposed to sunlight. The free fatty acids will 
increase somewhat even when the samples are stored 
in tin cans. The table on p. 4 gives a number of results 
showing the variation in different samples in the in- 
crease of the free fatty acids. 

After a sample has been stored for some time, and a 
portion of it is to be taken out, care should always 
be taken to shake the can well before pouring out. 
Misunderstandings have sometimes arisen because a 
sample was thoughtlessly poured off the top of a reserve 
sample. 



\^GET.\BLE AND ANIMAL 



127 



PROPERTIES OF THE LESS COMMON OILS 



Oil. 



Number., ^^*i°" 
Niunber. 



Acorn 

Amoora 

AnchoN-y 

Anise seed 

Apple seed 

Apricot kernel . . 

Arbutus 

Areca nut 

Argan 

Argemone 

Asparagus seed. . 

Baobab 

Barley 

Beans 

Beechnut 

Beef marrow. . . . 

Ben 

Betu 

Bilberry seed . . . 
Blackberry- seed . 
Borneo tallow. . . 
Brazil nut 

Brownfish 

Buckthorn 

Burdock 

CalophyUum. . . . 
Candleiilla Wax. 

Carapa 

Carp 

Caraway seed . . . 
Cay Cay 



ICO 

135 
160 

105 
135 
105 
148 

15 

96 
120 
137 

70 

90 

85-115 

"5 

50 

95 
105 

167 

148 

30 

100 



199 
190 
188 
178 
202 
192 
208 
230 
192 
188 
194 

190 
280 
185 
195 
198 
179 
194 

190 
189 

193 

200 



Melting- or | 

Solidifying- , Country of 

point. ] Origin. 

Deg. C. ' 



Use. 



Ill 


224 


155 




154 


197 


90 


195 


20 


60 


75 


196 


84 


202 


128 


178 


5 


236 

1 

1 



— 20 

-27 

35 



10 



30 
0-5 



4 
66 

13 



-7 
32 



Bengal 



Morocco 
Mexico 



Africa 



India 
India, 
Africa 



E. Indies 
S. America 



E. Africa 
Mexico 
S. America 



Cochin 
China 



Edible 



Edible 
Lubricant 
Edible and 
drying 



Edible 

Cosmetic 



Edible 

Edible, 

Soap 

Drying oil 
Drying oil 
Medicine 



Soap 



Candles 



128 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



PROPERTIES OF THE LESS COMMON OILS— Continued 



Oil 



Celandine 

Celery seed 

Celosia 

Chaulmoogra. . . 
Cherry kernel. . . 

Chicken 

Clover seed 

Coffee berry .... 

Cohune 

Colocynth 

Coriander seed. . 
Cottonseed wax . 

Coumon 

Cranberry seed. . 

Croton 

Curcas 

Currant seed. . . . 

Dab 

Daphne 

Datura 

Dika 

Dodder 

Dogwood seed . . 
Dugong 

Eel 

Elderberry 

Elozy 

Fir seed 



Iodine 
Number, 



127 

95 
126 
100 

114 

65 

120 

87 

75 
125 

100 

12 

80 
169 
104 
100 

152 
118 
126 
113 
3 

140 

100 
66 

107 
90 

85 
100-160 



Saponi- 
fication 
Number. 



198 
178 
190 
210 
193 

193 
189 

175 
197 

195 
182 

190 
190 
210 
193 

171 
185 
196 
190 
250 

187 

192 
197 

148 
200 
180 
190 



Melting- or 

Solidifying- 

point, 

Deg. C. 



titer 40° 
— 20 



-9 



-8 



39 
■17 
■15 



-5 
5 
4 to —29 



Country of 
Origin. 



China 
Burmah 



E. Africa 
Mexico 
Baluchis- 
tan 



S. America 

Asia 

S. America 



Japan 

W.Africa 
Europe 



Tropics 



Use. 



Medicine 
Soap, Burn- 
ing 



Medicine 



Pharmacy 
Soap, Lu- 
bricant 



Burning 
Soap, 

Candle 
Edible, 

Soap 

Leather, 
Soap 



Drying 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



129 



PROPERTIES OF THE LESS COMMON OILS— Continued 



Oil. 



Iodine 



Saponi- 



N-ber. ^?-^iSJ. 



Melting- or 

Solidifying- 

point, 

Deg. C. 



Country of 
Origin. 



Use. 



Funtumia .... 
Garden cress. . 
Garden rocket. 

Goose 

Grape seed . . . 

Gynocardia. . . 

Haddock liver. 
Hawthorn seed 
Hazelnut 

Henbane seed . 

Hop seed 

Horse chestnut 
Hydnocarpus . 

niipe 

Inoy kernel. . . 

Liukaya 

Jamba 

Japan wax. . . . 
Java ahnond. . 
Java olives . . . 

Kapok 

Kaya 

Koeme 

Kokum butter, 

Kombo 

Lallemantia. . . 

Laurel 

Lemon seed. . . 



138 

125 

15s 

80 

130 

152 

154 

153 

90 

138 
155 
95 
95 
55 
90 

130 
100 

5 
63 
83 

120 

140 

90 

30 

50 

162 

75 
109 



185 
i8s 
192 
190 

190 

198 

188 
172 
193 

171 

195 
205 
188 

185 
188 

175 

220 
197 
200 

195 

188 

190 
190 

210 

185 
200 
188 



W. Africa 



15 



22 to —23 France 

20 I 



Below —17 
-19 



20 

25 
36 



— II 

50 
12 



7 
37 



■35 
25 



Assam, 
Bengal 



India 
India 
W. Africa 



Japan 
Moluccas 
Malayan 
Islands 
Tropics 
Japan 

E. Africa 
India 
.\frica 
Russia 



Edible 
Drying oil 

Edible, 
Soap 
Drying oil 



Perfumes, 
Lubricant 



Medicine 
Candles 

Drying 
Similar 

to rape 
Polishes 



Edible 
Edible, 
Drying 

Edible 

Drying oil 
Medicine 



130 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



PROPERTIES OF THE LESS COMMON OILS— Continued 



Oil. 



Lentil , 

Linaria 

Loofah seed. . . , 

Lukrabo 

Lycopodium . . . 

Macassar 

Mackerel 

Madia 

Maf ura 

Malabar tallow 

Mani 

Manihot 

Manketti 

Margos 

Maripa 

Millet seed . . . . 

Mkanyi 

Mocaya 

Mountain ash. . 

Mowrah 

Mucuna 

Mulberry seed. 
Mustard seed . . 
Myrtle seed. . . . 
Myrtle wax. . . . 

N'Gart 

Niam 

Niger seed 

Njave 



Iodine Sapom-. 
M.,.^u-,- ncation 
Number. Number. 



Ill 
140 
108 

85 
81 

50 
167 
118 

50 

38 

64 

136 

148 
70 
IS 

130 

42 

27 
128 

60 

104 
140 

116 
107 

2 

177-200 

70 
134 

55 



183 
189 

193 
210 

195 
230 
I go 
193 

202 
190 
194 
189 

190 
197 

270 

184 
188 
188 
208 
190 
178 
190 

175 
200 

215 
192 

190 
190 
188 



Melting- or 

Solidifying- 

point. 

Deg. C. 



-8 



25 



— ID to —17 



30 
30 



23 

-6 

38 

8 

20 
3.5 

-15 

43 

16 to —33 

-9 



Country of 
Origin. 



E. India 
China 

India 

Europe 

Africa 

S. America 
Brazil, 

Africa 
W. Africa 
India 
Brazil 



E. Africa 
Paraguay 

India 



N. America 

Cameroons, 

Africa 
Africa 
E Africa 
W. Africa 



Use. 



Edible 

Edible 
Edible 

Edible, 
Soap 

Edible 



Drying oil 

Edible, 
Pharmacy 



Soap 



Edible 

Soap, 

Candles 
Drying oil 



Candles 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



131 



PROPERTIES OF THE LESS COMMON OILS— Continued ' 



Oil. 



Iodine 
Number. 


Saponi- 
fication 
Number. 


45 


160 


2 


238 


104 


229(?) 


90 


170-200 


52 


65 


136 




71 


173 


109 


176 


IIO 


183 


95 


190 


106 


198 


117 


188 


42 


192 


87 


191 


95 


190 


90 


180 


120 


189 


"5 


185 


105 


203 


100 


180 


8 


50 


175 


192 


115 


178 


115 


192 


100 


193 


130 


200 


82 


196 


140 


190 


82 


193 


80 


194 



Melting- or 

Solidifying- 

point, 

Deg. C. 



Country of 
Origin. 



Use. 



Nutmeg , 

Ochoco 

Orange seed . . . 

Owala 

Palm wax 

Para butter. . . . 
Paradise nut. . . 
Parsely seed . . . 

Pea 

Peach kernel. . . 

Pecan 

Persimmon . . . . 

Phulwara 

Pistachio 

Plum kernel . . . 

Pongam 

Pumpkin seed. . 

Quince 

Rabbit 

Radish 

Raphia wax 

Raspberry seed 

Ravison 

Ray liver 

Rice 

Rubber seed . . 

Rye 

SaflQower 

Sasanqua 

Senega root. . . 



40 
45 

10 



4 
14 
14 
20 



-II 

40 

-9 
-10 



•16 
•12 
30 
•15 
80 



Java 
Africa 

W. Africa 

Brazil 
Brazil 



India 



-9 



Madagas- 
car 



Brazil 

India 
Japan 



Edible 
Edible 



Substitute 
for abnond 



Edible 
Edible 
Substitute 

for almond 
Medicine, 

Soap 



Soap 



Drying oil 
Lubricant 



132 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



PROPERTIES OF THE LESS COMMON OILS— Continued 



GO. 



Iodine 
Number. 


Saponi- 
fication 
Number. 


60 


180 


157 


i8S 


99 


172 


130 


194 


87 


220 


180 


194 


102 


148 


130 


190 


42 


179 


10 


268 


140 


189 


119 


190 


110 


190 


iSS 


190 


8i 


191 


156 




10 


220 


107 


180 


124 


180 


120 


190 


"5 


187 


161 


192 


127 


201 


129 


190 



Melting- or 

Solidifying- 

point. 

Deg. C. 



Country of 
Origin. 



Use. 



Shea butter 

Skate liver 

Sorghum 

Sprat 

Staff tree 

Strawberry seed . 

Sunfish 

Sunflower seed . . 

Surin 

Tangkallak 

Thistle seed 

Tobacco seed . . . 
Tomato seed. . . . 

Trout liver 

Tsubaki 

Tunny liver 

Ucuchuba 

Vetch 

Wallflower 

Watermelon seed 

Wheat 

White acacia. . . . 

Whiting 

Yellow acacia. . . 



17 
40 

-s 

-17 

49 
27 



-15 

32 
-8 



W. Africa 
Turkestan 
Tropics 



Malay 

Penin. 
E. Indies 
Asia 



Japan 
Brazil 



S. Russia 
S. Russia 



Candles 



Drying oil 



Edible, 

Drying 
Candles 

Candles 
Edible, 
Drying 



Lubricant 



Drying oil 



VEGETABLE AND ANIMAL 



133 



WEIGHT PER GALLON OF OILS 
Based on Average Specific Gravity at 15.5° C. or 60® F. 



Castor 

China wood 
Cocoanut. . . 

Com 

Cottonseed . 
Fish oils. . . . 
Hempseed . . 

Lard 

Linseed ... 
Neat's-foot . 
Olive 



Pounds. 


8.0 


7.85 


7.7 


7-7 


7-7 


7.7 


7-75 


7.8 


7.8 


7.6s 


7.6s 

1 



Pahn 

Palm nut 
Peanut. . 
Perilla.. 
Rape ... 
Sesame. . 
Soya. . . . 
Sperm . . , 
Tallow. . 
Whale.. 



Pounds. 



Note. — New York Produce Exchange specifies that cottonseed, olive, sesame, 
peanut, refined rapeseed and poppyseed oils shall be at the rate of 7i lbs. per 
gallon. 

COMPARISON BETWEEN SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND DEGREES 
BAUME FOR LIQUIDS LIGHTER THAN WATER 



Specific Gravity. 


Degrees Baum6. 


Specific Gravity. 


Degrees Baum6. 


.85 


34.71 


.93 


20.54 


.86 


32.79 


.94 


18.94 


.87 


30.92 


•95 


17-37 


.88 


29.08 


.96 


15.83 


.89 


27 30 


•97 


14-33 


.90 


25.56 


.98 


12.86 


.91 


23.85 


.99 


II. 41 


.92 


22.17 


1. 00 

1 


10.00 



134 



COMMERCIAL OILS 



COMPARISON BETWEEN CENTIGRADE AND FAHRENHEIT 
THERMOMETER SCALES 



Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit. 


1 Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit. 


Centigrade. 


Fahrenheit. 


-30 


— 22 


24 


75-2 


63 


145. 4 


-28 


-18 


2S 


77.0 


64 


147-2 


-26 


-IS 


26 


78.8 


65 


149 -o 


-24 


— II 


27 


80.6 


66 


150.8 


— 22 


-8 


28 


82.4 


67 


152.6 


— 20 


-4 


29 


84.2 


68 


154.4 


-18 





30 


86.0 


69 


156.2 


-16 


+3 


31 


87.8 


70 


158.0 


-14 


7 


32 


89.6 


71 


159.8 


— 12 


10 


33 


91.4 


72 


161. 6 


— 10 


14 


34 


93-2 


73 


163.4 


-8 


18 


35 


950 


74 


165.2 


-6 


21 


36 


96.8 


75 


167.0 


-4 


25 


37 


98.6 


76 


168.8 


— 2 


28 


38 


100.4 


77 


170.6 





32.0 


39 


102.2 


78 


172.4 


+1 


33.8 


40 


104.0 


79 


174.2 


2 


35-6 


41 


105.8 


80 


176.0 


3 


37-4 


42 


107.6 


81 


177.8 


4 


39-2 


43 


109.4 


82 


179.6 


S 


41.0 


44 


III. 2 


S3 


181. 4 


6 


42.8 


45 


113. 


84 


183.2 


7 


44-6 


46 


114. 8 


85 


185.0 


8 


46.4 


47 


116. 6 


86 


186.8 


9 


48.2 


48 


118. 4 


S7 


188.6 


10 


50.0 


49 


120.2 


88 


190.4 


II 


518 


50 


122.0 


89 


192.2 


12 


53.6 


51 


123.8 


90 


194.0 


13 


55-4 


52 


125.6 


91 


195-8 


14 


57.2 


53 


127.4 


92 


197.6 


IS 


590 


54 


129.2 


93 


199.4 


16 


60.8 


55 


131. 


94 


201.2 


17 


62.6 


56 


132.8 


95 


203.0 


18 


64.4 


57 


134.6 


96 


204.8 


19 


66.2 


58 


136.4 


97 


206.6 


20 


68.0 


59 


138.2 


98 


208.4 


21 


69.8 


60 


140.0 


99 


210.2 


22 


71.6 


61 


141. 8 


100 


212.0 


23 


73-4 


62 


143.6 







Boiling-point of water on the Fahrenheit scale is 212°, Centigrade, 
100°. Freezing point of water, Fahrenheit is 32°, Centigrade, 0°. 



INDEX 



Acetyl number, 22 
Acidity, 23 
Acid number, 22 
Adeps lanae, 103 
Adulteration of oils, 12, 26 
Almond oil, 58 
Ammonia, 10 
Animal fats, 95 
Animal oils, 72 
Arachis oil, 59 
Arctic sperm oil, 102 
Artist's oil, S3i 42, 46 
Ash, 9 



Bacon's test, 38 
Baudouin's test, 25, 27, 55 
Baume's scale, 15, 133 
Bean oil, 42 
Beeswax, 104 
Black grease, 117 
Bleaching, 10 
Bleaching test, 17. 52 
Blown oil, 112 
Blubber oils, 81, loi 
Boiled oil, s3j 36, m 
Bone fat, 98 
Bone oil, 98 
Bone phosphate, 10 
Bottlenose oil, 102 
Brominated oil, 108 
Bromine value 20 
Brown grease, 104 



Browne's test, 38 

Bung oil, 33 

Burning oils, 108 

Burning point, 109 

Butter fat, 100 

Butter oil, 50 

Butter substitute, 100, 107 



Cacao butter, 87 
Cacao butter substitutes, 107 
Cake, oil, 9, 48 
Candlenut oil, 40 
Candles, 113 
Carbohydrates, 9 
Carnauba wax, 103 
Castor oil, 66, 108, 113 
Centigrade scale, 134 
Characteristics of oils, 13 
China nut oil, 37 
China wood oil, 37 
Chinese bean oil, 42 
Chinese vegetable tallow, 88 
Chinese wax, 105 
Cholesterol, 25, 34 
Chrysalis oil, 84 
Cloth oils, no 
Cloud test, 16 
Cocoanut oil, 90 
Cod liver oil, 77 
Cod oil, 77 
Cold test, 16, 51, 86 
Color, 17, 51 
Color tests, 24 



135 



136 



INDEX 



Colza oil, 56 
Constants of oils, 13 
Copra, 90 
Corn oil, 47 
Cottonseed oil, 48 
Crude fiber, 9 

D 

Degras, 104, 118 

Dirt, 14 

Dogfish liver oil, 79 

Dolphin oil, 84 

Driers, 33 

Drying oils, 20, 34, 108 



Edible fats, 106 
Edible oils, 10, 106 
Efferv^escent oil, 108 
Egg oil, 85 
Elaidin test, 24 
Eleine, 114 
Enamels, 112 
Engler viscosimeter, 18 
Expressing oils, 7 
Extraction of oils, 8 



Fahrenheit scale, 134 

Fair average quality, 46 

Fats, I 

Fatty adds, i, 2, 3, 4, 22, 25, 113, 

114 
Ferments, 3,. 11 
Fertilizers, 9 
Filtration, 11 
Finkener's test, 68 
Fish oils, 72, 77 
Fish tallow, 74 
Flash point, 109 
Flaxseed oil, 31 
Foots, 117 
Foreign substance, 14 



Free fatty acids, 22 
Freezing-p)oint, 15 
Fuller's earth, 1 1 



Gallon, weight of oils, per, 133 
Glycerin, i, 2, 115 
Grease, 104, 117 
Ground-nut oil, 59 



Halphen test, 25, 27 
Hanus number, 20 
Hardened oil, no 
Heat test, 38 
Hempseed oil, 41 
Herring oil, 76 
Horse fat, 100 
Hiibl number, 20 
Hydrogenated oil, no 



Illimiinating oils, 108 
Impurities, 14 
Insect wax, 105 
Insoluble matter, 14 
Iodine number, 20, 21 
Iodized oil, 108 



Japan wax, 94 
Japanese cod oil, 78 
Japanese fish oil, 74, 77 
Japanese sardine oil, 74 
Japanese tung oil, 39 
Japanese wood oil, 39 



Koettstoerfer nimiber, 19 



Lanolin, 104 
Lard, 95 



INDEX 



13? 



Lard compound, 97 
Lard oil, 97 
Lard substitutes, 107 
Laurie acid, 5 
Liebermann-Storch test, 25 
Linseed oil, 31 
Lithographic oil, iii 
Liver oils, 77, 80 
Lovibond tintometer, 17, 51 
Lubricating oils, 70, 109 
Limibang oil, 40 

M 

Marc, 65 

Margarines, 107 

Maumen6 test, 24 

Medicinal oils, 108 

Melting-point, 15 

Menhaden oil, 73 

Mineral oil, 23 

Miu, 115 

Moisture, 13 

Mucilaginous matter, 9, 10, 117 

Mustard seed oil, 57 



N 



Neat's-foot oil, 85 
Neutral oil, i, 117 
Nitrated oil, 112 
Nitrogen, 9 



Oil, cake, 9 
Oil classification, 5 
Oil definition, i 
Oil, edible, 10 
Oil, properties, 2 
Oil, purity, 12, 26 
Oil storage, 12 
Oil, uses, 106 
Oleic acid, 5, 22, T14 
Olein, 1x4 



Oleo margarine, 100, 107 

Oleo oil, TOO 

Oleo stearine, 100 

Olive oil, 64 

Oxidized oil, 112 

Oxygen absorption, 3, 10, 24 

Ozone, 10 



Paint, 112 

Paint oil, 33, 44, 108 

Palmitic acid, 5 

Palm nut oil, 89 

Palm oil, 86 

Peanut oil, 59 

Perilla oil, 30 

Phosphoric acid, 10 

Phosphorized oil, 108 

Phytosterol, 25 

Polishes, 117 

Polymerization, 37 

Poppyseed oil, 46 

Porpoise oil, 84 

Potash, 10 

Pour test, 16 

Pratt and Lambert test, 38 

Proteids, 9 

Purity, examination for, 12, 26 



Qualitative tests, 24 



Raked oil, 78 

Rancidity, 3, 8 

Rape oil, 56 

Rapeseed oil, 56 

Ravison oil, 57 

Red oil, 114 

Redwood viscosimeter, 18 

Refining, 10 

Refining loss, 11, 51 



138 



INDEX 



Refractive index, i6 
Refrigeration, ii 
Reichert-Meissl number, 20 
Reichert-WoUny number, 20 
Rendering, 7 
Renovated butter, loi 
Rosin, 36 
Rosin oil, 25, 36 
Rubber substitute, 112 



Salad oils, 106 

Salmon oil, 75 

Sampling, 119 

Saponification number, 19 

Sardine oil, 74, 75 

Sasanqua oil, 64 

Saybolt viscosimeter, 18 

Seeds, 8 

Seek oil, 1 10 

Sesame oil, 54 

Shark liver oil, 79 

Shark oil, 79 

Silkworm oil, 84 

Sitosterol, 25 

Soap, 93, 115 

Soap stock, 51, 53, 114, 117 

Sod oil, 118 

Solidifying-point, 15 

Solvents, 8 

Soya bean oil, 42 

Specific gravity, 14, 133 

Spermaceti, 102, 104 

Sperm oil, loi 

Spontaneous combustion, 109 

Stearic acid, 113 

Stearine, 11, 113 

Stillingia oil, 41 

Stock food, 9 

StuflSng grease, 118 

Sulphonated oil, 113 

Sulphur chloride test, 24 



Sulphuric acid, 23 
Sunflower oil, 47 



Tagliabue viscosimeter, 18 
Tallow, 98 
Tallow oil, 100 
Tallow seed oil, 41 
Tallow substitutes, 107 
Tallow, vegetable, 88 
Teaseed oil, 64 
Thermometer scales, 134 
Tintometer. 17 
Titer, 16, 25, .13 
Train oil, 81 
Tsubaki oil, 64 
Tung oil, 37, 39 
Turkey red oil, 67,. 68^ 113 
Turtle oil, 83 

U 

Unsaponifiable matter, 23 



Variables of oils, 13 
Varnishes, in 
Viscosity, 17 
Volatile fatty acids, 20 
Vulcanized oil, 112 

W 

Walnut oil, 42 

Water, 13 

Waxes, 6, loi 

Weight per gallon of oils, 133 

Whale oil, 81 

Wijs number, 20 

Winter oil, 11 

Wood oil, 37, 39 

Wool grease, 103 

Wool oils, no 

Wool wax, 103 

Worstall test, 38 




Subjects Related to this Volume 

For convenience a list of the Wiley Special Subject Catalogues, 
envelope size, has been printed. These are arranged in groups 
— each catalogue having a key symbol. (See Special Subject 
List Below). To obtain any of these catalogues, send a 
postal using the key symbols of the Catalogues desired. 



List of Wiley Special Subject Catalogues 

1— Agriculture. Animal Husbandry. Dairying. Industrial 
Canning and Preserving. 

2 — Architecture. Building. Masonry. 

3 — Business Administration and Management. Law. 

Industrial Processes: Canning and Preserving; Oil and Gas 
Production; Paint; Printing; Sugar Manufacture; Textile. 

CHEMISTRY 
4a General; Analytical, Qualitative and Quantitative; Inorganic; 

Organic. 
4b Electro- and Physical; Food and Water; Industrial; Medical 

and Pharmaceutical; Sugar. 

CIVIL ENGINEERING 

5a Unclassified and Structural Engineering. 

5b Materials and Mechanics of Construction, including; Cement 
and Concrete; Excavation and Earthwork; Foundations; 
Masonry. 

5c Railroads; Surveying, 

5d Dams; Hydraulic Engineering; Pumping and Hydraulics; Irri- 
gation Engineering; River and Harbor Engineering; Water 

Supply. 

(Over) 



CIVIL BNGINEERING— Continued 
5e Highways; Municipal Engineering; Sanitary Engineering; 
Water Supply. Forestry. Horticulture, Botany and 
Landscape Gardening. 



6 — Design. Decoration. Drawing: General; Descriptive 

Geometry; Kinematics; Mechanical. 

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING— PHYSICS 

7 — General and Unclassified; Batteries; Central Station Practice; 
Distribution and Transmission; Dynamo-Electro Machinery; 
Electro-Chemistry and Metallurgy; Measuring Instruments 
and Miscellaneous Apparatus. 



8 — Astronomy. Meteorology. Explosives. Marine and 
Naval Engineering. Military. Miscellaneous Books. 

MATHEMATICS 
9 — General; Algebra; Analytic and Plane Geometry; Calculus; 
Trigonometry; Vector Analysis. 

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 
10a General and Unclassified; Foundry Practice; Shop Practice. 
10b Gas Power and Internal Combustion Engines; Heating and 
Ventilation; Refrigeration. 

10c Machine Design and Mechanism; Power Transmission; Steam 
Power and Power Plants; Thermodynamics and Heat Power. 
11 — Mechanics. ____ 

12 — Medicine. Pharmacy. Medical and Pharmaceutical Chem- 
istry. Sanitary Science and Engineering. Bacteriology and 
Biology. 

MINING ENGINEERING 

13 — General; Assaying; Excavation, Earthwork, Tunneling, Etc.; 
Explosives; Geology; Metallurgy; Mineralogy; Prospecting; 
Ventilation. 



UCSF LIBRARY MATERIALS MUST BE RETURNED TO: 

THE UCSF LIBRARY 

530 Parnassus Ave. 
University of California, San Francisco 94143-0840 



Borrowers are responsible for keeping track of due dates. 

Refer to the Borrowing Rules for details. 

http://library/info/circ/rules.html 

Items without holds may be renewed within five days prior to the 

due date in person, by phone (415-476-2335), or online at 

http://ucsfcat.ucsf.edu/patroninfo/ 

All items are subject to recall after 7 days. 



2B DA\g8 DAY LOAN 

FEB 2 3 2008 
RETURNED 

FEB 2 8 2008 



3 1378 00758 2318 



^ 



39987